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Clinical Medicine

Evaluation and Management of the Hypernatremic Patient

Acute salt toxicity resulting from the ingestion of large amounts of sodium chloride is a potential cause of hypernatremia.

Hypernatremia reflects the loss of water in excess of sodium or the addition of sodium in excess of water. A patient with hypernatremia therefore must be unable or unwilling to consume adequate amounts of water or unable to retain adequate water.

Deciduous Canine Tooth Removal in the Dog

Timely extraction of deciduous teeth prevents patient discomfort and the development of further issues.

To prevent patient discomfort and pathology of developing permanent teeth resulting from problems with deciduous canine teeth in the dog, diagnosis and extraction of the appropriate deciduous tooth/teeth should be performed as early as possible. 

Allergen Immunotherapy for Canine Atopic Dermatitis: An Update

Intradermal allergy testing can be used to identify allergens to be included in immunotherapy.

Learn how allergen immunotherapy is used to treat environmental hypersensitivities by shifting the canine patient’s abnormal immune response toward a state of tolerance.

Canine Sporotrichosis

This case involves a Welsh springer spaniel that was diagnosed with sporotrichosis, a rare fungal infection.

Sporotrichosis is an uncommon disease in dogs that can evade diagnosis and can mimic other conditions. Immunosuppression may affect progression of this disease, but the prognosis can be good with recognition and appropriate therapy. 

Diagnosis and Treatment of Eyelid Tumors

Eyelid tumors are common in dogs but are often benign. On the other hand, eyelid tumors are more rare in cats but are often malignant.

Eyelid tumors can dramatically differ in behavior and treatment strategies between dogs and cats. For all eyelid tumors, early intervention and histopathologic examination are advisable. 

When Urine Trouble: A Clinical Approach to Proteinuria

With increasing evidence of proteinuria being a negative prognostic indicator for dogs and cats with chronic kidney disease, it is important to take note of persistent proteinuria, regardless of severity.

In addition to promoting progression of kidney disease, persistent proteinuria has several extrarenal consequences, therefore incidental proteinuria on routine diagnostic workups and geriatric screens should not be ignored.

Nutrition and Feline Idiopathic Constipation

The mainstay of feline idiopathic constipation management is nutrition, including potential modifications to diet form and fiber intake.

Treatment of chronic feline constipation requires an individualized approach, with periodic monitoring and adjustment of diet strategies and ancillary therapies, depending on the cat’s response. 

Canine Tapeworms

Dogs can become infected with tapeworms by ingesting fleas or lice containing infectious cysticercoids.

Take a closer look at the steps for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the most common, and some of the more rare, tapeworm infections in dogs.

The Future of Veterinary Continuing Education

Opportunities for digital learning expanded over the past 2 years, giving veterinarians improved selection between digital and in-person CE moving forward.

Veterinary continuing education has an exciting future as technology continues to advance, bringing the opportunity for more interactive virtual learning and new ideas for how to present engaging, in-person education.