Clinical Medicine

Clinical Insights

Hypervitaminosis A in Reptiles

AVOID OVERSUPPLEMENTING The key to preventing hypervitaminosis A is to ensure reptiles are fed a well-balanced diet. Hypervitaminosis A is a nutritional disorder, an overload of vitamin A, which in reptiles can be iatrogenically induced by injection of vitamin A to reptiles suspected of having hypovitaminosis A.1-3 Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin, meaning that …


Gabapentin and Amantadine for Chronic Pain: Is Your Dose Right?

Senior Patients Dealing with Chronic Pain The most common cause of chronic maladaptive pain is osteoarthritis, or degenerative joint disease. Pain is not always a bad thing, and all pain is not the same. Acute (protective) pain differs from chronic (maladaptive) pain in terms of function and treatment. This article describes the types of pain, …


Clinical Approaches to Common Ocular Tumors

LOW METASTATIC POTENTIAL The overall prognosis for life in most primary intraocular neoplasias is good. In companion animals, intraocular tumors are relatively uncommon, but those that do occur can be primary, metastatic, or locally invasive. Tumors can appear as discrete masses, diffuse changes, or even after uveitis. Learning to recognize the presence of a mass …


Gait Abnormality: Musculoskeletal or Neurologic Condition?

TIME-SAVING ASSESSMENT Have a veterinary nurse video record the patient’s gait with a smartphone. When an animal is presented to you with a history of lameness or a gait abnormality, you need to determine whether the problem is musculoskeletal, neurologic, or both, so you can recommend the appropriate treatment. To arrive at an appropriate diagnosis, …


Feline Medicine Sedation for Cats with Cardiovascular Disease

MINIMIZING ANESTHESIA RISKS There are no safe sedative or anesthetic drugs, just safe delivery practices. Cats represent a large part of the US pet population; as of 2012, the approximately 74.1 million cats outnumbered the approximately 69.9 million dogs in this country. Although these numbers represent an overall decline in dog and cat populations, the …


Feline Medicine Pandora Syndrome in Cats: Diagnosis and Treatment

PRACTICING CAT FRIENDLY The articles presented by the American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) focus on feline-specific information on cats’ unique behaviors; diagnosis and evaluation of disease and conditions; better approaches and techniques for cats; and strategies to decrease stress associated with the veterinary visit for cats, caregivers, and your team. LOWER URINARY SIGNS? Consider …


Critical Care Are Normal Electrolytes Really Normal?

Electrolyte disturbances are frequently encountered in veterinary patients and may warrant close evaluation and monitoring. Diseases of the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract and endocrinopathies often result in changes to electrolytes.1-3 Accurate initial assessment and serial monitoring for trends in electrolyte disturbances are essential to guide appropriate treatment of the underlying condition. However, in certain situations, … Protection Status