Ophthalmology

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Managing Uveitis in Dogs and Cats

The causes of uveitis are numerous and often elusive. Educating clients on the potential complications of uncontrolled uveitis (cataracts, glaucoma, loss of vision, pain) greatly increases compliance with therapy and follow-up visits to maximize success.

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Clinical Approaches to Common Ocular Tumors

In companion animals, intraocular tumors are relatively uncommon, but those that do occur can be primary, metastatic, or locally invasive. We review the types of intraocular neoplasia most frequently seen in our canine and feline patients.

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Acute Glaucoma: A True Emergency

Shelby Reinstein, DVM, MS, DACVO Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Center Levittown, Pennsylvania PRONE BREEDS Primary glaucoma is strongly breed related, and some of the most commonly affected dog breeds are the beagle, basset hound, Boston terrier, cocker spaniel, and shar-pei. THE BASICS OF GLAUCOMA Glaucoma is an elevation of the intraocular pressure (IOP) with associated …

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Diagnosing Acute Blindness in Dogs

Vision loss can occur gradually or manifest acutely in dogs, but acute and complete blindness can be particularly devastating. The abrupt nature of this blindness is very disconcerting for all involved and pet owners may make hasty conclusions and decisions. A thorough general and ophthalmic history is crucially important to the investigation of blindness because differential diagnoses can be quite different depending upon the onset and duration of the deficits. As the history is being gathered, confirmation of vision—or the lack thereof—should be performed. Note that some patients—those with neurologic disease and aged animals with cognitive dysfunction—may behave as if they are visually impaired even though their visual systems are functional.

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The Practitioner’s Guide to Neurologic Causes of Canine Anisocoria

Heidi Barnes Heller, DVM, Diplomate ACVIM (Neurology), and Ellison Bentley, DVM, Diplomate ACVO University of Wisconsin–Madison Anisocoria is defined as pupil asymmetry, and may be seen with ocular or neurologic dysfunction (Figure 1).1 When anisocoria is caused by neurologic disease, unequal pupil size may result from malfunction of the sympathetic, parasympathetic, or visual systems. When …

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Diagnosis & Treatment of Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca in Dogs

Lori J. Best, DVM; Diane V.H. Hendrix, DVM, Diplomate ACVO; and Daniel A. Ward, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVO Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), is a relatively common condition in dogs, although the diagnosis is often overlooked. This article provides guidance on the pathophysiology, causes, diagnosis, and medical and surgical treatment for this condition. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is …

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Clinical Approach to the Canine Red Eye

Elizabeth Barfield Laminack, DVM; Kathern Myrna, DVM, MS; and Phillip Anthony Moore, DVM, Diplomate ACVO The acute red eye is a common clinical challenge for general practitioners. Redness is the hallmark of ocular inflammation but a nonspecific sign related to a number of underlying diseases. Proper evaluation depends on effective and efficient diagnosis in order …

Ten Tips to Improve Your Ophthalmology Skills

Kenneth Abrams, DVM, Diplomate ACVO Ophthalmology is a discipline of clinical recognition. We do not do many blood tests, radiographs, higher imaging, or urinalyses to determine a diagnosis; rather, through a systematic clinical examination we can usually determine the patient’s disease and subsequent treatment. Here are 10 tips to improve your ophthalmic examination skills. Figure …

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