Diagnosing, Treating, and Managing Causes of Conjunctivitis in Dogs and Cats
Understanding the various etiologies of conjunctivitis can help clinicians identify potentially life-threatening conditions that initially present as conjunctivitis.
The systemic conditions associated with conjunctivitis may present with or without additional ocular abnormalities. In the vast majority of cases, historical and physical examination findings will suggest the presence of a systemic disease and prompt further diagnostic investigation.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Ocular Proptosis
Proptosis, or traumatic forward displacement of the globe out of the orbit, is a serious ocular emergency that requires immediate attention to minimize discomfort and damage to the eye.
Managing Uveitis in Dogs and Cats
Managing uveitis centers on controlling inflammation, reducing pain, and preserving vision, but identifying the underlying condition requires skill and dedication.
The causes of uveitis are numerous and often elusive. Educating clients on the potential complications of uncontrolled uveitis (cataracts, glaucoma, loss of vision, pain) greatly increases compliance with therapy and follow-up visits to maximize success.
Clinical Approaches to Common Ocular Tumors
In companion animals, intraocular tumors are relatively uncommon, but those that do occur can be primary, metastatic, or locally invasive. We review the types of intraocular neoplasia most frequently seen in our canine and feline patients.
Acute Glaucoma: A True Emergency
Examining the causes, clinical signs, and therapy for acute glaucoma in dogs.
Clinical signs of canine glaucoma are traditionally divided into acute and chronic, but in most cases, most dogs present with an acute attack of glaucoma, including congestion, edema, fixed dilated pupils, and loss of sight.
Diagnosing Acute Blindness in Dogs
Acute blindness in dogs is most often caused by diseases of the retina or the optic nerve. With prompt treatment, some blindness may be reversible.
Vision loss can occur gradually or manifest acutely in dogs, but acute and complete blindness can be particularly devastating. The abrupt nature of this blindness is very disconcerting for all involved and pet owners may make hasty conclusions and decisions. A thorough general and ophthalmic history is crucially important to the investigation of blindness because differential diagnoses can be quite different depending upon the onset and duration of the deficits. As the history is being gathered, confirmation of vision—or the lack thereof—should be performed. Note that some patients—those with neurologic disease and aged animals with cognitive dysfunction—may behave as if they are visually impaired even though their visual systems are functional.
Runny Eyes: Feline Herpesvirus Infection
The authors describe the anatomy of the feline conjunctiva and cornea, pathogenesis of feline herpesvirus, and ocular manifestations of the disease, including specific diagnosis and therapy.
The Practitioner’s Guide to Neurologic Causes of Canine Anisocoria
Heidi Barnes Heller, DVM, Diplomate ACVIM (Neurology), and Ellison Bentley, DVM, Diplomate ACVO University of Wisconsin–Madison Anisocoria is defined as pupil asymmetry, and may be seen with ocular or neurologic dysfunction (Figure 1).1 When anisocoria is caused by neurologic disease, unequal pupil size may result from malfunction of the sympathetic, parasympathetic, or visual systems. When …
Diagnosis & Treatment of Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca in Dogs
Lori J. Best, DVM; Diane V.H. Hendrix, DVM, Diplomate ACVO; and Daniel A. Ward, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVO Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), is a relatively common condition in dogs, although the diagnosis is often overlooked. This article provides guidance on the pathophysiology, causes, diagnosis, and medical and surgical treatment for this condition. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is …