Treating Environmental Lung Injuries: Drowning and Smoke Inhalation
Respiratory Distress Management of a small animal with an environmental lung injury—e.g., due to drowning—differs from the care given for other types of respiratory compromise. Environmental lung injury can result from several causes, including drowning or smoke exposure from enclosed-space fires. Management of patients with environmental lung injuries differs from management of patients with the …
Hypervitaminosis A in Reptiles
In reptiles, the clinical signs of hypervitaminosis A are typically manifested in the skin. Reptiles with chronic hypervitaminosis A require long-term support and wound management as well as routine check-ups.
Feeding Cats With Chronic Kidney Disease: Customizing the Nutritional Management Plan
Nutritional intervention is the cornerstone for maintaining health and quality of life for cats with chronic kidney disease. Rather than resorting to the one-size-fits-all dietary approaches of the past, veterinarians today can manage patients as the unique individuals they are.
Gabapentin and Amantadine for Chronic Pain: Is Your Dose Right?
The scientific mechanisms of gabapentin and amantadine support their use as part of analgesic protocols for chronic pain relief in dogs and cats. Each can effectively treat chronic pain, but how do you know when to choose one drug over the other?
Clinical Approaches to Common Ocular Tumors
LOW METASTATIC POTENTIAL The overall prognosis for life in most primary intraocular neoplasias is good. In companion animals, intraocular tumors are relatively uncommon, but those that do occur can be primary, metastatic, or locally invasive. Tumors can appear as discrete masses, diffuse changes, or even after uveitis. Learning to recognize the presence of a mass …
Gait Abnormality: Musculoskeletal or Neurologic Condition?
TIME-SAVING ASSESSMENT Have a veterinary nurse video record the patient’s gait with a smartphone. When an animal is presented to you with a history of lameness or a gait abnormality, you need to determine whether the problem is musculoskeletal, neurologic, or both, so you can recommend the appropriate treatment. To arrive at an appropriate diagnosis, …
Chronic Kidney Disease Screening and Confirmation Testing in Cats
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed conditions in older cats. A 1992 study of 2228 cats found 31% of cats older than 10 years to be affected1; a smaller and more recent study of a random cohort of cats found incidence to be 50%.2 New testing options may help you …
Feline Medicine Sedation for Cats with Cardiovascular Disease
MINIMIZING ANESTHESIA RISKS There are no safe sedative or anesthetic drugs, just safe delivery practices. Cats represent a large part of the US pet population; as of 2012, the approximately 74.1 million cats outnumbered the approximately 69.9 million dogs in this country. Although these numbers represent an overall decline in dog and cat populations, the …
Feline Medicine Pandora Syndrome in Cats: Diagnosis and Treatment
Providing an environment that is compatible with cats’ behavioral needs often seems to mitigate the effects of at least some manifestations of Pandora syndrome in addition to promoting their general health and welfare.