Managing Chronic Pain In Cats & Dogs, Part 1: The Two Most Important Tools in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis
Part 1 of a comprehensive look at managing chronic pain in dogs and cats. Here, an overview of osteoarthritis, including a treatment plan.
Assessing Chronic Pain In Dogs
Mark E. Epstein, DVM, Diplomate ABVP (Canine/Feline), CVPP Finding precise, reliable, and accurate measures of chronic pain in animals is a difficult effort. However, much research has gone into developing measurement methods to evaluate chronic pain in dogs (and, more recently, cats); this article reviews the pain scales currently available. One thing clinicians and investigators …