Interpretation of Dental Radiographs in Dogs and Cats, Part 2: Normal Variations and Abnormal Findings
This article focuses on interpretation of normal anatomic variations as well as congenital and pathologic abnormal findings on dental radiographs in dogs and cats (Box 1). Both articles assume the reader is familiar with basic dental radiographic acquisition techniques, concepts, and skills…
Small Animal Abdominal Ultrasonography: The Spleen
Along the visceral surface border of the spleen, the hilum is surrounded by fat, where splenic vessels can be found. The splenic portal veins can be seen originating from the splenic hilum and can be traced between the stomach and colon to a…
Interpretation of Dental Radiographs in Dogs & Cats, Part 1: Principles & Normal Findings
Dental radiography is considered part of the standard of care for dogs and cats undergoing dental intervention. Radiographs are essential for identifying and documenting the nature and severity of dental disorders and conditions.
Lower Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Series, Part 2: Lower Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Techniques
Lower gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic technique that allows the clinician to evaluate the mucosal surfaces…
Small Animal Abdominal Ultrasonography, The Urinary Tract: Urinary Bladder & Urethra
The bladder is usually examined when it is distended with urine as an empty or minimally distended urinary bladder…
Small Animal Abdominal Ultrasonography, Part 2: Liver & Gallbladder
When using the systematic approach described in previous articles, the sonographic tour of the abdomen begins in the cranial abdomen, evaluating the liver and gallbladder. Proper ultrasound evaluation of the liver includes…
Lower Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Series, Part 1: Overview of Lower Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Lower gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic technique that allows the clinician to evaluate the mucosal surfaces of the rectum, colon, ileocolic sphincter, cecum, and distal small intestine (ileum).
Small Animal Abdominal Ultrasonography, Part 1: Liver & Gallbladder
This article discusses normal ultrasound appearance as well as common abnormalities that can be detected with this imaging method.
Small Animal Abdominal Ultrasonography,Part 2: A Tour of the Abdomen
A systematic pattern for scanning the abdomen is an important aspect of any abdominal ultrasound (US) examination. In approaching abdominal ultrasonography, the practitioner should identify the questions the scan needs to answer; however, a negative US scan does not rule out disease.