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Surgical Skills

Local Anesthesia for the Distal Extremity

Heidi L. Shafford, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVAA Local anesthesia techniques are important analgesic tools. The author provides step-by-step instructions in providing IVRA and ring blocks to both dogs and cats. Local anesthetics block nerve impulses caused by painful stimuli, which makes them effective analgesics. Regional and peripheral blocks are versatile and can be applied to …

Corrective Surgery: Dogs with Brachycephalic Airway Syndrome

If performed early, surgery and corrective procedures can prevent development of secondary changes associated with brachycephalic airway syndrome.

Brachycephalic airway syndrome (BAS) refers to a group of primary and secondary abnormalities (Table 1) that result in upper airway obstruction. Primary abnormalities cause an increase in negative pressure within the upper airways that can eventually lead to secondary abnormalities. Any tissue that obstructs the airway lumen is a source of resistance. According to the …