Imaging Essentials: Ultrasonography of the Adrenal Glands
Elizabeth Huynh, DVM Clifford R. Berry, DVM, DACVR University of Florida Welcome to our series of articles on small animal abdominal ultrasonography. The initial articles provided an overview of basic ultrasonography principles and a discussion about how to perform a systematic scan of the abdomen. The rest of the series discusses ultrasound evaluation of specific …
Imaging Essentials: Ultrasonography of Peritoneal and Retroperitoneal Spaces and Abdominal Lymph Nodes
Clifford R. Berry, DVM, DACVR; Elizabeth Huyhn, DVM; and Danielle Mauragis, CVT, University of Florida Welcome to our series of articles on small animal abdominal ultrasonography. The initial articles provided an overview of basic ultrasonography principles and a discussion about how to perform a systematic scan of the abdomen. The rest of the series discusses …
Uncovering the Cause of Fever in Cats
The normal body temperature range in cats is 38.1°C to 39.2°C (100.5°F–102.5°F). Fever of unknown origin (FUO) in cats is classified as a temperature higher than 39.7°C (103.5°F) measured at least 4 times in a 2-week period without an identified cause.
Diagnosing Acute Blindness in Dogs
Vision loss can occur gradually or manifest acutely in dogs, but acute and complete blindness can be particularly devastating. The abrupt nature of this blindness is very disconcerting for all involved and pet owners may make hasty conclusions and decisions. A thorough general and ophthalmic history is crucially important to the investigation of blindness because differential diagnoses can be quite different depending upon the onset and duration of the deficits. As the history is being gathered, confirmation of vision—or the lack thereof—should be performed. Note that some patients—those with neurologic disease and aged animals with cognitive dysfunction—may behave as if they are visually impaired even though their visual systems are functional.
Uncovering the Cause of Fever in Dogs
When describing FUO in dogs, fever is usually defined as greater than 103.5°F to 104°F (39.7–40°C), with no duration of fever specified. In animals, the path to revealing the cause of persistent fever can be lengthy and expensive but, in most patients, an etiology can be eventually identified
Early Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease in Dogs & Cats: Use of Serum Creatinine & Symmetric Dimethylarginine
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common cause of decreased quality of life as well as death in dogs and cats. The prevalence of CKD has been estimated to be 0.5% to 1% in dogs and 1% to 3% in cats,1,2 but it increases with age, especially in cats. An estimated 30% to 50% of cats 15 years of age or older have CKD.
Canine Pituitary Dependent Hyperadrenocorticism Series, Part 2: Diagnostic Approach
David Bruyette, DVM, Diplomate ACVIM VCA West Los Angeles Animal Hospital, Los Angeles, California, and Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation and Consultation, Woodland Hills, California Canine pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH), also known as Cushing’s disease, is a common endocrine disorder in older dogs. This disorder is caused by a pituitary adenoma (PA) that secretes inappropriate amounts of …
Canine Chronic Kidney Disease: Current Diagnostics & Goals for Long-Term Management
JD Foster, VMD, Diplomate ACVIM Chronic kidney disease is an irreversible and progressive deterioration of renal function; however, through early diagnosis and staging, prompt management can delay disease progression. Each aspect of treatment is comprehensively covered in this article. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an irreversible and progressive deterioration of renal function, resulting from a …
Feline Acute Pancreatitis: Current Concepts in Diagnosis & Therapy
P. Jane Armstrong, DVM, MS, MBA, Diplomate ACVIM, and Sarah Crain, DVM, MS, Diplomate ACVIM Pancreatitis appears to be a common disease in cats,1 yet it remains frustratingly difficult to establish a clinical diagnosis with certainty. Clinicians must rely on a combination of compatible clinical findings, serum feline pancreatic lipase (fPL) measurement, and ultrasonographic changes …