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environmental lung injuries in small animals

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Treating Environmental Lung Injuries: Drowning and Smoke Inhalation

Respiratory Distress Management of a small animal with an environmental lung injury—e.g., due to drowning—differs from the care given for other types of respiratory compromise. Environmental lung injury can result from several causes, including drowning or smoke exposure from enclosed-space fires. Management of patients with environmental lung injuries differs from management of patients with the …

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Clinical Approaches to Common Ocular Tumors

LOW METASTATIC POTENTIAL The overall prognosis for life in most primary intraocular neoplasias is good. In companion animals, intraocular tumors are relatively uncommon, but those that do occur can be primary, metastatic, or locally invasive. Tumors can appear as discrete masses, diffuse changes, or even after uveitis. Learning to recognize the presence of a mass …

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Gait Abnormality: Musculoskeletal or Neurologic Condition?

TIME-SAVING ASSESSMENT Have a veterinary nurse video record the patient’s gait with a smartphone. When an animal is presented to you with a history of lameness or a gait abnormality, you need to determine whether the problem is musculoskeletal, neurologic, or both, so you can recommend the appropriate treatment. To arrive at an appropriate diagnosis, …

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Feline Medicine Sedation for Cats with Cardiovascular Disease

MINIMIZING ANESTHESIA RISKS There are no safe sedative or anesthetic drugs, just safe delivery practices. Cats represent a large part of the US pet population; as of 2012, the approximately 74.1 million cats outnumbered the approximately 69.9 million dogs in this country. Although these numbers represent an overall decline in dog and cat populations, the …

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Critical Care Are Normal Electrolytes Really Normal?

Electrolyte disturbances are frequently encountered in veterinary patients and may warrant close evaluation and monitoring. Diseases of the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract and endocrinopathies often result in changes to electrolytes.1-3 Accurate initial assessment and serial monitoring for trends in electrolyte disturbances are essential to guide appropriate treatment of the underlying condition. However, in certain situations, …

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