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A Guide to Exploratory Laparotomy

Exploratory laparotomy is used to diagnose or further investigate problems inside the abdomen that could not be achieved via preoperative diagnostics.

Thorough exploratory laparotomy is a key component of abdominal surgery.

Treating Otitis Externa in Dogs

Ear cytology is a quick way to confirm infection and the degree of inflammation for patients with suspected otitis externa.

Half the battle of treating otitis externa is figuring out the underlying cause and type. Once that is achieved, client education and compliance are key to managing it.

Approaches to Opportunistic Fungal Infections in Small Animals

While treatment of opportunistic fungal infections is challenging, early recognition and aggressive treatment can enhance the potential for success.

Although the prognosis of fungal infections is guarded to poor, a multi-modal and aggressive approach can yield some positive results.

Diagnostic Approach to the Pruritic Dog

There are many differential diagnoses for pruritus in dogs, but following a few guidelines in the correct order can greatly facilitate the workup.

A pruritic work-up should include getting a thorough history, eliminating infectious or parasitic causes before leaping into an allergic skin disease assessment, and leaving atopic dermatitis as a last-resort diagnosis.

Diagnosing, Treating, and Managing Causes of Conjunctivitis in Dogs and Cats

Understanding the various etiologies of conjunctivitis can help clinicians identify potentially life-threatening conditions that initially present as conjunctivitis.

The systemic conditions associated with conjunctivitis may present with or without additional ocular abnormalities. In the vast majority of cases, historical and physical examination findings will suggest the presence of a systemic disease and prompt further diagnostic investigation. 

Improving Patient Outcomes Through Antibiotic Stewardship

Practicing antibiotic stewardship is not only responsible from a One Health perspective but will also ultimately lead to improved patient outcomes.

Antibiotic stewardship is good medicine. Veterinarians and clients should continue to work toward producing a positive clinical outcome while simultaneously minimizing the promotion of antibiotic resistance. 

A Clinical Approach to Alopecia in Cats

The workup of alopecia in cats involves a combination of thorough history, categorization, and use of targeted investigative techniques.

The workup of alopecia in cats involves a combination of thorough history, categorization, and use of targeted investigative techniques. Although there are a large number of differential diagnoses for feline alopecia, a very large proportion of these differentials can be identified or excluded by using a relatively small number of inexpensive, rapid, and easy diagnostic techniques. 

Surgical Management of Canine Liver Masses

Surgical intervention is indicated as the treatment of choice for massive, solitary liver tumors in dogs.

The prognosis is good for dogs with massive hepatocellular carcinoma, especially given the liver has an enormous capacity for regeneration. Specific surgical approaches depend on multiple variables, including surgeon preference as well as tumor characteristics.