Respiratory Medicine

Feline Rhinitis and Upper Respiratory Disease   

Feline Rhinitis and Upper Respiratory Disease    
Upper respiratory tract (URT) diseases are remarkably common in cats and can be both challenging in the acute state and frustrating in the chronic state.
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Claire R. Sharp, BSc, BVMS (Hons), MS, CMAVA, Diplomate ACVECC

A 5-year-old cat with nasal discharge and sneezing is presented at your practice.

  • What are your differential diagnoses?
  • What diagnostics do you pursue?
  • Depending on the diagnosis, what treatment options can you initiate?

Upper respiratory tract (URT) diseases are remarkably common in cats and can be both challenging in the acute state and frustrating in the chronic state. The objective of this review article is to discuss the approach to evaluating a cat with clinical signs attributable to the URT.

CAUSES

A variety of disorders can affect the URT of cats.

  • Infectious URT disease (usually viral rhinosinusitis) is by far the most common cause of URT signs.
  • Less common causes of URT signs include:1
  1. Chronic idiopathic rhinosinusitis (noninfectious, inflammatory)
  2. Nasopharyngeal polyps, stenosis, foreign bodies, and neoplasia
  3. Laryngeal disease
  4. Tooth root disease.

Any of these can cause acute or chronic URT signs.

  • Chronic rhinitis refers to rhinitis/rhinosinusitis that persists for longer than 1 month, particularly without signs of systemic disease. These cats are often referred to as chronic “snufflers/sniffers.”
  • The most common diagnoses—acute/chronic URT infection and chronic idiopathic rhinosinusitis—are typically considered diagnoses of exclusion.
  • Therefore, it is important to thoroughly evaluate cats (especially adults) with URT signs (particularly chronic), because another, more treatable disease may be identified as the source of the signs.

ETIOLOGY AND EPIDEMIOLOGY

When considering differential diagnoses for URT signs in cats, it is important to consider the etiopathogenesis and epidemiology of these diseases.

INFECTIOUS DISEASE

Feline Herpes Virus & Calicivirus

The pathogens that most commonly cause URT infections in cats are viral.2,3 Feline herpes virus (FHV) and feline calicivirus (FCV) account for approximately 90% of all feline URT disease.1

Risk Factors

  • Viral URT disease is especially common in kittens and stressed or immunocompromised adults.
  • Most cats with idiopathic chronic rhinitis are thought to have had viral (FHV or FCV) URT infections in early life, although they may not manifest active viral infection as adults.4

Transmission

  • Pathogens enter through the oral and nasal conjunctiva; FHV and FCV replication occurs in the mucosa of the nasal septum, nasal turbinates, nasopharynx, and tonsils.
  • Viral shedding (possibility of transmission to other cats) occurs for at least the duration of clinical signs.
  • Many cats continue shedding after resolution of clinical signs. In most, clinical signs resolve within 2 weeks but shedding can continue for another 2 weeks or even lifelong.

Virus Reactivation

  • About 80% of cats experience neuronal latency of FHV in the trigeminal ganglion; the virus can then be reactivated due to stress, illness, or immunosuppression (≈ 50% of cats).5
  • Intermittent reactivation of FHV gives rise to viral shedding in oronasal and conjunctival secretions.
  • When reactivation is associated with clinical signs it is termed recrudescence; however, shedding can occur in the absence of clinical signs in cases of chronic, latent FHV infection.

Etiology of Clinical Signs

  • Viral URT infection can cause either acute or chronic clinical signs (Figures 1 and 2), depending on the immune status of the affected cat (and potentially other factors).
  • Infection is associated with multifocal epithelial necrosis, neutrophilic inflammation, and fibrinous exudation, resulting in “classic” clinical signs.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Bilateral, moderate serous ocular discharge and marked, mucopurulent nasal discharge in a cat with feline URT disease.

Figure 2_eyes

Figure 2. Bilateral, serosanguineous ocular discharge, blepharospasm, and nasal discharge in a 4-year-old, neutered male cat with recrudescence of FHV-1 and associated superficial ulceration and keratoconjunctivitis in both eyes.

Prevention

  • It is important to note that vaccines are not necessarily protective—they are designed to decrease severity of clinical signs (especially with FCV, due to its great antigenic diversity).6
  • URT viruses are generally transmitted cat to cat via URT secretions and aerosol transmission over short distances; however, environmental contamination can occur, especially in multicat situations.
  1. FHV is susceptible to common disinfectants, antiseptics, and detergents.
  2. FCV, however, can persist in the environment for about a month and is resistant to many common disinfectants; bleach is the preferred agent for killing the virus.
  • Cats with URT signs should be isolated during their hospital stay in an area with adequate ventilation. Strict hygiene practices should be followed, including bleaching of cages and other items in contact with infected cats.

H1N1 Influenza Virus

H1N1 influenza virus (swine flu) has been identified in cats, receiving some interest given its significance in human medicine.

Naturally occurring H1N1 infection was first documented in cats in 2009 and was associated with the human pandemic.7-9 Cats most likely acquired the virus from their human household companions.10 Thus, the virus is essentially absent from surveyed feral cat populations.11

H1N1 infection appears to occasionally result in signs of acute upper and lower respiratory tract disease in cats. Mortality is attributable to severe pneumonia.

Bacterial Infection

Other primary URT pathogens include:1,3,12

  • Chlamydia psittaci
  • Mycoplasma felis
  • M gatae
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica.

Although these can be primary bacterial pathogens, they are more commonly secondary to and concurrent with viral infection. Notably, viral agents damage the respiratory epithelium, especially in young cats, making the cat more susceptible to opportunistic pathogens, such as staphylococci, streptococci, pasteurellae, and coliforms.

Fungal Infection

Fungal infections (eg, nasal cryptococcosis) can also occur.

OTHER CAUSES

Nasopharyngeal Polyps

Nasopharyngeal polyps can cause chronic URT signs.

  • These polyps originate in the Eustachian tube or middle ear and are a source of upper airway obstruction.13
  • While nasopharyngeal polyps are inflammatory in nature, their exact etiology is not known.
  • Polyps are generally found in young cats.14They are a rare cause of URT signs in older cats; in this age group, neoplastic processes predominate.15

Nasal/Nasopharyngeal Tumors

Nasal tumors are a less common cause of URT signs, although require consideration, especially in older cats. As with laryngeal tumors (see Laryngeal Disease), lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma should be considered. With the exception of lymphoma, these tumors tend to be locally invasive without distant metastases.16

Nasal Foreign Bodies

Although less common in cats than dogs, cats may suffer from nasal foreign bodies, the majority of which are plant material lodged above the soft palate.16

Nasopharyngeal Stenosis

Fortunately, this is a rare condition. It can be congenital or acquired secondary to chronic infection or aspiration.

Laryngeal Disease

Laryngeal disease is rarely reported in cats, but all ages can be affected. Laryngeal disease may be inflammatory, neoplastic (benign or malignant), associated with trauma, or idiopathic.

  • Inflammatory laryngeal diseases are a heterogenous group of conditions, including diffuse neutrophilic or lymphoplasmacytic inflammation and inflammatory polyps.17The etiology of laryngeal inflammation in cats is not known.
  • A variety of laryngeal neoplasms have been reported in cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) positive cats are overrepresented.
  • Lymphoma and squamous cell carcinoma are most common, but adenocarcinoma and round cell tumor are also found.18,19
  • A definitive diagnosis is vital to guide treatment as chemoresponsiveness varies.
  •  There are a few reports of laryngeal paralysis in cats.20,21 A significant proportion are idiopathic, but paralysis can be secondary to neoplasia, iatrogenic (neck surgery, traumatic intubation), or laryngeal inflammation.

Tooth Root Disease

While dental disease is commonly listed as a cause of URT signs in cats, it is uncommonly reported.22 Tooth root abscesses should be considered a differential diagnosis for cats with URT signs, particularly unilateral discharge with other evidence of dental disease.

CLINICAL SIGNS

Clinical signs are somewhat similar for all feline URT diseases; however, some signs are unique to specific pathogens and/or anatomic locations of pathology (Table 1). As mentioned previously, these diseases may result in acute onset of clinical signs or follow a more chronic course. Physical examination in cats with acute URT infections may be consistent with systemic illness.

Table 1. URT Disease Clinical Signs
Type of Sign Clinical Signs
Local Signs

•  Sneezing and nasal congestion (resulting in open-mouth breathing)

•  Ocular discharge (with potentially more severe ocular signs)

•  Nasal discharge (usually bilateral)Often serous discharge initially; secondary bacterial colonization of nasal passages can result in change to mucopurulent dischargeEncrustation of external nares and eyelids due to large discharge volume, dehydration, and poor grooming

•  Oral ulceration

•  Stertor or stridor

Systemic Signs

•  Fever•  Lethargy

•  Inappetence/anorexia

URTDisease Clinical Signs
Feline Calicivirus

•  Commonly associated with oral ulceration, which affects tongue, soft palate, and fauces

•  Ulcers contribute to ptyalism and oral pain (exacerbating inappetence)

Feline Herpes Virus

•  More severe URT clinical signs in general

•  Ocular signs become more marked and chronic, including:BlepharospasmBilateral conjunctivitisKeratitis (persistent or recurrent)

Chemosis

Superficial ulceration (dendritic ulcers, direct viral cytolysis of cornea)

FungalRhinitis

•  May result in facial deformity (eg, Roman nose), skin ulceration, and nasal discharge

•  Often have submandibular lymphadenopathy

Laryngeal Disease

•  Increased inspiratory effort (with variable distress) and stridor

•  May display dysphonia, coughing, gagging, and/or retching

Nasopharyn-geal Foreign Bodies

•  Acute onset of sneezing and reverse sneezing

•  Gagging and swallowing

•  Both of the above result in distress

Nasopharyn-geal Polyps

•  Stertorous breathing

•  Otitis

DIAGNOSTICS

Feline URT infection is usually a clinical diagnosis based on history and physical examination (ocular and nasal discharge, stertor, etc).

FOCUSED DIAGNOSTICS

FIV/FeLV Test 

  • If the cat has not been recently tested and/or risk factors exist, this test should be performed since URT diseases are associated with immunosuppression.
  • Laryngeal neoplasia is also common in FIV positive cats.

CBC & Serum Biochemical Profile

  • These tests are not usually indicated in cats with acute URT signs in the absence of systemic illness.
  • However, they are recommended in cats that are systemically unwell or have chronic clinical signs.

Polymerase Chain Reaction

  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the preferred method for virus detection in cats with URT signs; however, it is not standardized among laboratories (and, thus, sensitivity and specificity vary).
  • IDEXX (idexx.com) has a Feline Upper Respiratory Disease (URD) RealPCR Panel that tests for FHV, FCV, Chlamydophila felisM felis, B bronchiseptica, and H1N1 influenza (requires a deep pharyngeal swab and conjunctival swab).

Other Methods

Other methods for virus and antigen detection include virus isolation and indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay; however, these are more time consuming and potentially less sensitive than PCR.5

FURTHER DIAGNOSTICS

Diagnostics for cats with chronic URT signs and/or localizing signs should be more thorough given the broad range of differential diagnoses.1,15

Oral Examination under Anesthesia

  • Fully assesses extent of dental disease and its potential contribution to URT signs and the larynx
  • Indicated in cats that have evidence of dental abnormalities during awake oral examination and those with stridor or other clinical signs attributable to the larynx

Upper Airway Imaging

  • Indicated in cats in which a space occupying lesion or bony lytic lesion is suspected
  • Cervical radiographs can be very useful for identifying laryngeal masses in cats with signs attributable to the larynx.
  • Ultrasound (ie, echolaryngography) identifies laryngeal masses and dysfunction.23
  • Dental radiographs can identify and assess tooth root abscesses.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now used (where available) instead of traditional skull radiographs to assess nasal passages and bullae for potential masses, lytic lesions, or polyps. CT remains the preferred modality given its greater bony detail; MRI is preferable for assessing soft tissue.24

Note: Imaging should always be performed prior to sampling procedures.

Rhinoscopy & Nasal Flush

  • Used to assess nasopharyngeal masses, foreign bodies, and stenosis
  • Antegrade rhinoscopy is challenging in cats given the small diameter of the nasal passages but can be performed with narrow rigid scopes.
  • Retroflex rhinoscopy is more commonly performed to assess the nasopharynx. If a scope is not available, it can be visualized with a spay hook and dental mirror.
  • Nasal flushes can be used to obtain samples for cytology and bacterial or fungal culture. Tissue samples can be submitted for culture if obtained. While primary bacterial infection is a rare cause of chronic URT signs in cats, identification and treatment of secondary bacterial infection can ameliorate clinical signs, particularly in cats with chronic disease.
  • Biopsy is indicated in cases of space occupying disease in the nasal passages and can be done blind or guided with imaging. Biopsy or, more commonly, fine-needle aspiration is indicated in cats with structural laryngeal disease (notably laryngeal inflammation or mass) identified during laryngeal examination and imaging.

Note: Assessment of coagulation status should be done prior to biopsy procedures.

Other

A latex cryptococcal agglutination test can be performed when an index of suspicion for fungal rhinitis (eg, endemic areas, typical lesions) exists; however, the diagnosis is achieved immediately with cytology.

TREATMENT

Treatment of feline URT disease (Table 2) depends on the underlying cause, whether signs or disease is acute or chronic, and extent and severity of systemic illness.

Chronic URT disease can be frustrating to treat since there is commonly no cure unless a diagnosis (eg, tooth root absess) is reached.4 If no specific diagnosis is reached, chronic viral infection and/or chronic idiopathic rhinosinusitis is often the default diagnosis.

Table 2. URT Disease Treatment
Disease Type Treatment
Acute Disease

•  Intravenous fluid therapy for rehydration and maintenance is often indicated.

•  Provision of nutritional support is indicated since most affected cats are profoundly inappetent or anorexic.•  Antibiotics are warranted in many cases for secondary bacterial infection (Table 3).

•  The role of systemic antiviral agents is as yet undetermined. One recent report of chronic FHV infection suggested some benefit of oral famciclovir (see Evaluation of Orally Administered Famciclovir in Cats Experimentally Infected with Feline Herpesvirus Type-1, Journal Club, page 86).

•  Isolation is a very important part of management in the veterinary hospital, given the contagious nature of these diseases.5,6

Chronic Disease

•  A nasal flush, with or without antibiotics, is one method of long-term management.

•  Long-course, high-dose antibiotics (eg, clindamycin, 50–75 mg/cat PO Q 12 H for 3–4 months) may be used to manage chronic “snufflers.”•  Oral prednisone may help in cases of lymphocytic–plasmacytic inflammation.

•  Antihistamines are rarely effective, but can be tried as they are unlikely to be harmful.4

•  Surgical removal of the turbinates has been described but is a highly invasive procedure and rarely indicated.

Conditions Treatment
FHV Corneal Lesions •  Topical antiviral agents (eg, trifluridine, idoxuridine, vidarabine) and parenteral L-lysine (200 mg PO Q 12–24 H) have been traditionally recommended; however, recent studies question lysine’s efficacy.25-27
Nasopharyngeal Polyps

•  Simple traction is considered first-line treatment, with an estimated success of ≈ 50%.

•  Ventral bulla osteotomy should be considered if clinical signs recur.14

•  Horner’s syndrome is very commonly seen after removal; it tends to be transient, but may be permanent.14

Nasopharyngeal Stenosis

•  Balloon dilation and stent placement, although not curative, can be palliative.28-30

•  Anti-inflammatory therapy has also been advocated to reduce associated inflammation.

Nasopharyngeal Foreign Bodies •  Nasal flushing (often following visualization with retroflex rhinoscopy) is most commonly used for removal of foreign bodies.16
Nasopharyngeal & Laryngeal Neoplasia

•  Treatment depends on the type and location of the neoplasm

•  Chemotherapy is often used for lymphoma, although it’s associated with systemic side effects.

•  Palliative radiation therapy is indicated for other nasal tumors because they are rarely surgically resectable.

•  Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories may be beneficial, although less so for feline squamous cell carcinoma.

LaryngealInflammation •  Prednisolone may be used for control of idiopathic laryngeal inflammation.
Laryngeal Paralysis

•  May not require therapeutic intervention given the somewhat sedentary lifestyle of cats.

•  Arytenoid lateralization, if required, has reportedly higher complication rates in cats than dogs.21

 

PROGNOSIS

The prognosis for cats with URT signs depends on the nature of the underlying disease.

Feline URT infections are generally associated with high morbidity (especially in at-risk populations) but low mortality; with the exception of FHV, infections are typically self-limiting in young adult immunocompetent cats.

  • In contrast, a grave prognosis is associated with moribund kittens and cats with neurologic complications, systemic FCV, viral pneumonia, and concurrent infectious disease, such as panleukopenia.
  • The long-term prognosis for cats with FHV is guarded, since recurrence of ocular and respiratory signs throughout life is common. Ocular complications can include corneal sequestrum, keratomalacia, desmetocoele, and corneal scar formation.31
  • Chronic rhinosinusitis is also associated with high morbidity in individual affected cats.

It is recommended to educate the client early in the course of diagnosis regarding the concept of chronicity and control rather than cure. After turbinates are destroyed, regardless of the inciting cause, these cats remain predisposed to recurrent infection and inflammation. Affected cats will likely always have some dysfunction, such as nasal discharge.

Table 3. Recommended Drug Doses for Cats with Infectious URT Disease
Antibiotics
Amoxicillin 10–22 mg/kg PO Q 8–12 H
Amoxicillin-Clavulanate 13.75 mg/kg PO Q 8–12 H
Azithromycin 15 mg/kg PO Q 12 H
Clindamycin 10–12 mg/kg PO Q 12 H
Doxycycline 10 mg/kg PO Q 24 H
Antifungals
Fluconazole 50 mg/cat PO Q 12–24 H
Itraconazole 10 mg/kg PO Q 24 H
Antivirals
Famciclovir Recommended doses vary:62.5–125 mg/cat PO Q 12 H190 mg/kg PO Q 8 H2
Lysine 200-500 mg/cat Q 12-24 H

NotesLiquid formulations are useful to aid in administration.Antifungal drugs should only be used in cases of confirmed fungal etiology.References

1.  Plumb DC. Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook, 6th ed. Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008.

2.  Thomasy SM, Lim CC, Reilly CM, et al.. Evaluation of orally administered famciclovir in cats experimentally infected with feline herpesvirus type-1. Am J Vet Res. 2011;72(1):85-95.

FeLV = feline leukemia virus;

FIV = feline immunodeficiency virus;

FCV = feline calicivirus;

FHV = feline herpes virus;

PCR = polymerase chain reaction;

URT = upper respiratory tract

References

  1. Quimby J, Lappin MR. Update on feline upper respiratory diseases: Introduction and diagnostics. Compend Cont Ed Pract Vet2009; 31:554-564.
  2. Burns RE, Wagner DC, Leutenegger CM, et al. Histologic and molecular correlation in shelter cats with acute upper respiratory infection.J Clin Microbiol 2011; 49:2454-2460.
  3. Helps CR, Lait P, Damhuis A, et al. Factors associated with upper respiratory tract disease caused by feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, Chlamydophilafelis and Bordetella bronchiseptica in cats: Experience from 218 European catteries. Vet Rec2005; 156:669-673.
  4. Scherk M. Snots and snuffles: Rational approach to chronic feline upper respiratory syndromes. J Feline Med Surg2010; 12:548-557.
  5. Thiry E, Addie D, Belak S, et al. Feline herpesvirus infection. ABCD guidelines on prevention and management.J Feline Med Surg 2009; 11:547-555.
  6. Radford AD, Addie D, Belak S, et al. Feline calicivirus infection. ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. J Feline Med Surg2009; 11:556-564.
  7. Ali A, Daniels JB, Zhang Y, et al. Pandemic and seasonal human influenza virus infections in domestic cats: Prevalence, association with respiratory disease, and seasonality patterns. J Clin Microbiol2011; 49:4101-4105.
  8. Campagnolo ER, Rankin JT, Daverio SA, et al. Fatal pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus infection in a Pennsylvania domestic cat. Zoonoses Public Health2011; 58:500-507.
  9. Fiorentini L, Taddei R, Moreno A, et al. Influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus outbreak in a cat colony in Italy. Zoonoses Public Health2011; 58:573-581.
  10. Lohr CV, DeBess EE, Baker RJ, et al. Pathology and viral antigen distribution of lethal pneumonia in domestic cats due to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus. Vet Pathol2011; 47:378-386.
  11. Gordy JT, Jones CA, Rue J, et al. Surveillance of feral cats for influenza A virus in North Central Florida. Influenza Other Respi Viruses2011; DOI:10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00325.x.
  12. Holst BS, Hanas S, Berndtsson LT, et al. Infectious causes for feline upper respiratory tract disease—A case-control study. J Feline Med Surg2010; 12:783-789.
  13. Veir JK, Lappin MR, Foley JE, et al. Feline inflammatory polyps: Historical, clinical, and PCR findings for feline calici virus and feline herpes virus-1 in 28 cases. J Feline Med Surg2002; 4:195-199.
  14. Donnelly KE, Tillson DM. Feline inflammatory polyps and ventral bulla osteotomy. Compend Cont Ed Pract Vet2004; 26:446-454.
  15. Henderson SM, Bradley K, Day MJ, et al. Investigation of nasal disease in the cat—a retrospective study of 77 cases. J Feline Med Surg2004; 6:245-257.
  16. Quimby J, Lappin MR. Update on feline upper respiratory diseases: Condition-specific recommendations. Compend Cont Ed Pract Vet2010; 32:E1-E10.
  17. Costello MF, Keith D, Hendrick M, et al. Acute upper airway obstruction due to inflammatory laryngeal disease in 5 cats. J Vet Emerg Crit Care2001; 11:205-211.
  18. Jakubiak MJ, Siedlecki CT, Zenger E, et al. Laryngeal, laryngotracheal, and tracheal masses in cats: 27 cases (1998-2003). JAAHA2005; 41:310-316.
  19. Taylor SS, Harvey AM, Barr FJ, et al. Laryngeal disease in cats: A retrospective study of 35 cases. J Feline Med Surg2009; 11:954-962.
  20. Schachter S, Norris CR. Laryngeal paralysis in cats: 16 cases (1990-1999). JAVMA2000; 216:1100-1103.
  21. Hardie RJ, Gunby J, Bjorling DE. Arytenoid lateralization for treatment of laryngeal paralysis in 10 cats. Vet Surg2009; 38:445-451.
  22. Anthony JM, Sandmeyer LS, Laycock AR. Nasolacrimal obstruction caused by root abscess of the upper canine in a cat. Vet Ophthalmol2010; 13:106-109.
  23. Rudorf H, Barr F. Echolaryngography in cats. Vet Radiol Ultrasound2002; 43:353-357.
  24. Reed N, Gunn-Moore D. Nasopharyngeal disease in cats: 1. Diagnostic investigation. J Feline Med Surg2012; 14:306-315.
  25. Drazenovich TL, Fascetti AJ, Westermeyer HD, et al. Effects of dietary lysine supplementation on upper respiratory and ocular disease and detection of infectious organisms in cats within an animal shelter. Am J Vet Res2009; 70:1391-1400.
  26. Rees TM, Lubinski JL. Oral supplementation with L-lysine did not prevent upper respiratory infection in a shelter population of cats. J Feline Med Surg2008; 10:510-513.
  27. Maggs DJ, Sykes JE, Clarke HE, et al. Effects of dietary lysine supplementation in cats with enzootic upper respiratory disease.J Feline Med Surg 2007; 9:97-108.
  28. Boswood A, Lamb CR, Brockman DJ, et al. Balloon dilatation of nasopharyngeal stenosis in a cat. Vet Radiol Ultrasound2003; 44:53-55.
  29. Glaus TM, Gerber B, Tomsa K, et al. Reproducible and long-lasting success of balloon dilation of nasopharyngeal stenosis in cats. Vet Rec2005; 157:257-259.
  30. Berent AC, Weisse C, Todd K, et al. Use of a balloon-expandable metallic stent for treatment of nasopharyngeal stenosis in dogs and cats: six cases (2005-2007). JAVMA2008; 233:1432-1440.
  31. Gould D. Feline herpesvirus-1: Ocular manifestations, diagnosis and treatment options. J Feline Med Surg2011; 13:333-34.
f01_authorClaire R. Sharp, BSc, BVMS (Hons), MS, CMAVA, Diplomate ACVECC, is an assistant professor and specialist in small animal emergency medicine and critical care at Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine. Dr. Sharp is also the Director for the Problem-Based Learning course for first- and second-year veterinary students and is heavily involved in the clinical instruction and mentoring of critical care residents and interns. Her primary clinical interests include the diagnosis and management of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, shock, polytrauma, and respiratory distress. Dr. Sharp’s research endeavors have involved identifying clinically relevant biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognostication of emergency room diseases, such as sepsis, feline asthma, and hemangiosarcoma.
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for='choice_6_15_2' id='label_6_15_2'>Today's Veterinary Business eNewsletter<br><div style="font-size: 12px; color: #808080;">Covers topics relating to practice management, financial metrics, marketing, retailing and merchandising, and industry news.</div></label> </li><li class='gchoice_6_15_3'> <input name='input_15.3' type='checkbox' value='Today&#039;s Veterinary Nurse eNewsletter&lt;br&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;font-size: 12px;color: #808080&quot;&gt;Provides practical, peer-reviewed companion animal educational CE for veterinary nurses, technicians and assistants.&lt;/div&gt;' id='choice_6_15_3' /> <label for='choice_6_15_3' id='label_6_15_3'>Today's Veterinary Nurse eNewsletter<br><div style="font-size: 12px; color: #808080;">Provides practical, peer-reviewed companion animal educational CE for veterinary nurses, technicians and assistants.</div></label> </li><li class='gchoice_6_15_4'> <input name='input_15.4' type='checkbox' value='Today&#039;s Veterinary Practice eNewsletter&lt;br&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;font-size: 12px;color: #808080&quot;&gt;Provides practical, peer-reviewed articles focused on the latest diagnostic and treatment techniques to enhance your knowledge and confidence.&lt;/div&gt;' id='choice_6_15_4' /> <label for='choice_6_15_4' id='label_6_15_4'>Today's Veterinary Practice eNewsletter<br><div style="font-size: 12px; color: #808080;">Provides practical, peer-reviewed articles focused on the latest diagnostic and treatment techniques to enhance your knowledge and confidence.</div></label> </li><li class='gchoice_6_15_5'> <input name='input_15.5' type='checkbox' value='VetFolio eNewsletter&lt;br&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;font-size: 12px;color: #808080&quot;&gt;Discover online CE resources offered in a variety of formats including videos, podcasts, webinars and more.&lt;/div&gt;' id='choice_6_15_5' /> <label for='choice_6_15_5' id='label_6_15_5'>VetFolio eNewsletter<br><div style="font-size: 12px; color: #808080;">Discover online CE resources offered in a variety of formats including videos, podcasts, webinars and more.</div></label> </li><li class='gchoice_6_15_6'> <input name='input_15.6' type='checkbox' value='Partner Emails&lt;br&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;font-size: 12px;color: #808080&quot;&gt;Exclusive deals and information from our partners.&lt;/div&gt;' id='choice_6_15_6' /> <label for='choice_6_15_6' id='label_6_15_6'>Partner Emails<br><div style="font-size: 12px; color: #808080;">Exclusive deals and information from our partners.</div></label> </li></ul></div></li><li id='field_6_19' class='gfield gfield_html gfield_html_formatted field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><br></li><li id='field_6_22' class='gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><label class='gfield_label' >Do you want to be added to our postal mailing list?</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_checkbox'><ul class='gfield_checkbox' id='input_6_22'><li class='gchoice_6_22_1'> <input name='input_22.1' type='checkbox' value='Yes, I love mail!' id='choice_6_22_1' /> <label for='choice_6_22_1' id='label_6_22_1'>Yes, I love mail!</label> </li><li class='gchoice_6_22_2'> <input name='input_22.2' type='checkbox' value='No thank you.' id='choice_6_22_2' /> <label for='choice_6_22_2' id='label_6_22_2'>No thank you.</label> </li></ul></div></li><li id='field_6_10' class='gfield gfield_contains_required field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><label class='gfield_label gfield_label_before_complex' >Please provide your mailing address below.<span class='gfield_required'>*</span></label> <div class='ginput_complex ginput_container has_street has_street2 has_city has_state has_zip has_country ginput_container_address' id='input_6_10' > <span class='ginput_full address_line_1' id='input_6_10_1_container' > <input type='text' name='input_10.1' id='input_6_10_1' value='' aria-required="true"/> <label for='input_6_10_1' id='input_6_10_1_label' >Street Address</label> </span><span class='ginput_full address_line_2' id='input_6_10_2_container' > <input type='text' name='input_10.2' id='input_6_10_2' value='' /> <label for='input_6_10_2' id='input_6_10_2_label' >Address Line 2</label> </span><span class='ginput_left address_city' id='input_6_10_3_container' > <input type='text' name='input_10.3' id='input_6_10_3' value='' aria-required="true"/> <label for='input_6_10_3' id='input_6_10_3_label' >City</label> </span><span class='ginput_right address_state' id='input_6_10_4_container' > <input type='text' name='input_10.4' id='input_6_10_4' value='' aria-required="true"/> <label for='input_6_10_4' id='input_6_10_4_label' >State / Province / Region</label> </span><span class='ginput_left address_zip' id='input_6_10_5_container' > <input type='text' name='input_10.5' id='input_6_10_5' value='' aria-required="true"/> <label for='input_6_10_5' id='input_6_10_5_label' >ZIP / Postal Code</label> </span><span class='ginput_right address_country' id='input_6_10_6_container' > <select name='input_10.6' id='input_6_10_6' aria-required="true"><option value='' selected='selected'></option><option value='Afghanistan' >Afghanistan</option><option value='Åland Islands' >Åland Islands</option><option value='Albania' >Albania</option><option value='Algeria' >Algeria</option><option value='American Samoa' >American Samoa</option><option value='Andorra' >Andorra</option><option value='Angola' >Angola</option><option value='Anguilla' >Anguilla</option><option value='Antarctica' >Antarctica</option><option value='Antigua and Barbuda' >Antigua and Barbuda</option><option value='Argentina' >Argentina</option><option value='Armenia' >Armenia</option><option value='Aruba' >Aruba</option><option value='Australia' >Australia</option><option value='Austria' >Austria</option><option value='Azerbaijan' >Azerbaijan</option><option value='Bahamas' >Bahamas</option><option value='Bahrain' >Bahrain</option><option value='Bangladesh' >Bangladesh</option><option value='Barbados' >Barbados</option><option value='Belarus' >Belarus</option><option value='Belgium' >Belgium</option><option value='Belize' >Belize</option><option value='Benin' >Benin</option><option value='Bermuda' >Bermuda</option><option value='Bhutan' >Bhutan</option><option value='Bolivia' >Bolivia</option><option value='Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba' >Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba</option><option value='Bosnia and Herzegovina' >Bosnia and Herzegovina</option><option value='Botswana' >Botswana</option><option value='Bouvet Island' >Bouvet Island</option><option value='Brazil' >Brazil</option><option value='British Indian Ocean Territory' >British Indian Ocean Territory</option><option value='Brunei Darussalam' >Brunei Darussalam</option><option value='Bulgaria' >Bulgaria</option><option value='Burkina Faso' >Burkina Faso</option><option value='Burundi' >Burundi</option><option value='Cambodia' >Cambodia</option><option value='Cameroon' >Cameroon</option><option value='Canada' >Canada</option><option value='Cape Verde' >Cape Verde</option><option value='Cayman Islands' >Cayman Islands</option><option value='Central African Republic' >Central African Republic</option><option value='Chad' >Chad</option><option value='Chile' >Chile</option><option value='China' >China</option><option value='Christmas Island' >Christmas Island</option><option value='Cocos Islands' >Cocos Islands</option><option value='Colombia' >Colombia</option><option value='Comoros' >Comoros</option><option value='Congo, Democratic Republic of the' >Congo, Democratic Republic of the</option><option value='Congo, Republic of the' >Congo, Republic of the</option><option value='Cook Islands' >Cook Islands</option><option value='Costa Rica' >Costa Rica</option><option value='Côte d&#039;Ivoire' >Côte d&#039;Ivoire</option><option value='Croatia' >Croatia</option><option value='Cuba' >Cuba</option><option value='Curaçao' >Curaçao</option><option value='Cyprus' >Cyprus</option><option value='Czech Republic' >Czech Republic</option><option value='Denmark' >Denmark</option><option value='Djibouti' >Djibouti</option><option value='Dominica' >Dominica</option><option value='Dominican Republic' >Dominican Republic</option><option value='Ecuador' >Ecuador</option><option value='Egypt' >Egypt</option><option value='El Salvador' >El Salvador</option><option value='Equatorial Guinea' >Equatorial Guinea</option><option value='Eritrea' >Eritrea</option><option value='Estonia' >Estonia</option><option value='Eswatini (Swaziland)' >Eswatini (Swaziland)</option><option value='Ethiopia' >Ethiopia</option><option value='Falkland Islands' >Falkland Islands</option><option value='Faroe Islands' >Faroe Islands</option><option value='Fiji' >Fiji</option><option value='Finland' >Finland</option><option value='France' >France</option><option value='French Guiana' >French Guiana</option><option value='French Polynesia' >French Polynesia</option><option value='French Southern Territories' >French Southern Territories</option><option value='Gabon' >Gabon</option><option value='Gambia' >Gambia</option><option value='Georgia' >Georgia</option><option value='Germany' >Germany</option><option value='Ghana' >Ghana</option><option value='Gibraltar' >Gibraltar</option><option value='Greece' >Greece</option><option value='Greenland' >Greenland</option><option value='Grenada' >Grenada</option><option value='Guadeloupe' >Guadeloupe</option><option value='Guam' >Guam</option><option value='Guatemala' >Guatemala</option><option value='Guernsey' >Guernsey</option><option value='Guinea' >Guinea</option><option value='Guinea-Bissau' >Guinea-Bissau</option><option value='Guyana' >Guyana</option><option value='Haiti' >Haiti</option><option value='Heard and McDonald Islands' >Heard and McDonald Islands</option><option value='Holy See' >Holy See</option><option value='Honduras' >Honduras</option><option value='Hong Kong' >Hong Kong</option><option value='Hungary' >Hungary</option><option value='Iceland' >Iceland</option><option value='India' >India</option><option value='Indonesia' >Indonesia</option><option value='Iran' >Iran</option><option value='Iraq' >Iraq</option><option value='Ireland' >Ireland</option><option value='Isle of Man' >Isle of Man</option><option value='Israel' >Israel</option><option value='Italy' >Italy</option><option value='Jamaica' >Jamaica</option><option value='Japan' >Japan</option><option value='Jersey' >Jersey</option><option value='Jordan' >Jordan</option><option value='Kazakhstan' >Kazakhstan</option><option value='Kenya' >Kenya</option><option value='Kiribati' >Kiribati</option><option value='Kuwait' >Kuwait</option><option value='Kyrgyzstan' >Kyrgyzstan</option><option value='Lao People&#039;s Democratic Republic' >Lao People&#039;s Democratic Republic</option><option value='Latvia' >Latvia</option><option value='Lebanon' >Lebanon</option><option value='Lesotho' >Lesotho</option><option value='Liberia' >Liberia</option><option value='Libya' >Libya</option><option value='Liechtenstein' >Liechtenstein</option><option value='Lithuania' >Lithuania</option><option value='Luxembourg' >Luxembourg</option><option value='Macau' >Macau</option><option value='Macedonia' >Macedonia</option><option value='Madagascar' >Madagascar</option><option value='Malawi' >Malawi</option><option value='Malaysia' >Malaysia</option><option value='Maldives' >Maldives</option><option value='Mali' >Mali</option><option value='Malta' >Malta</option><option value='Marshall Islands' >Marshall Islands</option><option value='Martinique' >Martinique</option><option value='Mauritania' >Mauritania</option><option value='Mauritius' >Mauritius</option><option value='Mayotte' >Mayotte</option><option value='Mexico' >Mexico</option><option value='Micronesia' >Micronesia</option><option value='Moldova' >Moldova</option><option value='Monaco' >Monaco</option><option value='Mongolia' >Mongolia</option><option value='Montenegro' >Montenegro</option><option value='Montserrat' >Montserrat</option><option value='Morocco' >Morocco</option><option value='Mozambique' >Mozambique</option><option value='Myanmar' >Myanmar</option><option value='Namibia' >Namibia</option><option value='Nauru' >Nauru</option><option value='Nepal' >Nepal</option><option value='Netherlands' >Netherlands</option><option value='New Caledonia' >New Caledonia</option><option value='New Zealand' >New Zealand</option><option value='Nicaragua' >Nicaragua</option><option value='Niger' >Niger</option><option value='Nigeria' >Nigeria</option><option value='Niue' >Niue</option><option value='Norfolk Island' >Norfolk Island</option><option value='North Korea' >North Korea</option><option value='Northern Mariana Islands' >Northern Mariana Islands</option><option value='Norway' >Norway</option><option value='Oman' >Oman</option><option value='Pakistan' >Pakistan</option><option value='Palau' >Palau</option><option value='Palestine, State of' >Palestine, State of</option><option value='Panama' >Panama</option><option value='Papua New Guinea' >Papua New Guinea</option><option value='Paraguay' >Paraguay</option><option value='Peru' >Peru</option><option value='Philippines' >Philippines</option><option value='Pitcairn' >Pitcairn</option><option value='Poland' >Poland</option><option value='Portugal' >Portugal</option><option value='Puerto Rico' >Puerto Rico</option><option value='Qatar' >Qatar</option><option value='Réunion' >Réunion</option><option value='Romania' >Romania</option><option value='Russia' >Russia</option><option value='Rwanda' >Rwanda</option><option value='Saint Barthélemy' >Saint Barthélemy</option><option value='Saint Helena' >Saint Helena</option><option value='Saint Kitts and Nevis' >Saint Kitts and Nevis</option><option value='Saint Lucia' >Saint Lucia</option><option value='Saint Martin' >Saint Martin</option><option value='Saint Pierre and Miquelon' >Saint Pierre and Miquelon</option><option value='Saint Vincent and the Grenadines' >Saint Vincent and the Grenadines</option><option value='Samoa' >Samoa</option><option value='San Marino' >San Marino</option><option value='Sao Tome and Principe' >Sao Tome and Principe</option><option value='Saudi Arabia' >Saudi Arabia</option><option value='Senegal' >Senegal</option><option value='Serbia' >Serbia</option><option value='Seychelles' >Seychelles</option><option value='Sierra Leone' >Sierra Leone</option><option value='Singapore' >Singapore</option><option value='Sint Maarten' >Sint Maarten</option><option value='Slovakia' >Slovakia</option><option value='Slovenia' >Slovenia</option><option value='Solomon Islands' >Solomon Islands</option><option value='Somalia' >Somalia</option><option value='South Africa' >South Africa</option><option value='South Georgia' >South Georgia</option><option value='South Korea' >South Korea</option><option value='South Sudan' >South Sudan</option><option value='Spain' >Spain</option><option value='Sri Lanka' >Sri Lanka</option><option value='Sudan' >Sudan</option><option value='Suriname' >Suriname</option><option value='Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands' >Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands</option><option value='Sweden' >Sweden</option><option value='Switzerland' >Switzerland</option><option value='Syria' >Syria</option><option value='Taiwan' >Taiwan</option><option value='Tajikistan' >Tajikistan</option><option value='Tanzania' >Tanzania</option><option value='Thailand' >Thailand</option><option value='Timor-Leste' >Timor-Leste</option><option value='Togo' >Togo</option><option value='Tokelau' >Tokelau</option><option value='Tonga' >Tonga</option><option value='Trinidad and Tobago' >Trinidad and Tobago</option><option value='Tunisia' >Tunisia</option><option value='Turkey' >Turkey</option><option value='Turkmenistan' >Turkmenistan</option><option value='Turks and Caicos Islands' >Turks and Caicos Islands</option><option value='Tuvalu' >Tuvalu</option><option value='Uganda' >Uganda</option><option value='Ukraine' >Ukraine</option><option value='United Arab Emirates' >United Arab Emirates</option><option value='United Kingdom' >United Kingdom</option><option value='United States' >United States</option><option value='Uruguay' >Uruguay</option><option value='US Minor Outlying Islands' >US Minor Outlying Islands</option><option value='Uzbekistan' >Uzbekistan</option><option value='Vanuatu' >Vanuatu</option><option value='Venezuela' >Venezuela</option><option value='Vietnam' >Vietnam</option><option value='Virgin Islands, British' >Virgin Islands, British</option><option value='Virgin Islands, U.S.' >Virgin Islands, U.S.</option><option value='Wallis and Futuna' >Wallis and Futuna</option><option value='Western Sahara' >Western Sahara</option><option value='Yemen' >Yemen</option><option value='Zambia' >Zambia</option><option value='Zimbabwe' >Zimbabwe</option></select> <label for='input_6_10_6' id='input_6_10_6_label' 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