Continuing Education , Emergency Medicine/Critical Care , Featured

First Aid/Temporary Immobilization of Limb Fractures With Bandages and Splints

Ross Palmer DVM, MS, DACVS

Dr. Palmer is currently a professor of orthopedic surgery at Colorado State University; half of his career was in private specialty practice as a staff surgeon and as a practice owner. He has been an invited speaker at conferences around the world and is the founder of Complete Course on External Skeletal Fixation, which has been educating veterinarians for 25 years. The author of 50+ journal articles, book chapters, and veterinary educational videobooks, he also is the president-elect of the Veterinary Orthopedic Society. Dr. Palmer’s clinical work is focused on traumatology, minimally invasive surgery, limb deformity correction, and conditions of the knee. His research is directed toward disease and injury of the canine/human knee, cartilage repair, and development of novel devices for human orthopedic health care.

Clara S. S. Goh BVSc, MS, DACVS-SA

Dr. Goh earned her veterinary degree at Sydney University, Australia. She completed her postgraduate specialty training (rotating internship, surgical residency, and surgical oncology fellowship) at Colorado State University, where she currently holds a faculty position in small animal orthopedic surgery. Her clinical and research interests include cruciate disease, hip dysplasia, and minimally invasive surgery (arthroscopy). Dr. Goh has been an invited speaker and instructor at numerous conferences and surgical labs throughout the United States, supporting continuing education of veterinarians from around the world. She is also the current small animal surgery program chair for the North American Veterinary Community (NAVC).

First Aid/Temporary Immobilization of Limb Fractures With Bandages and Splints
WRAP IT UP External coaptation is the use of bandages, splints, casts, or other materials to aid in stability and support for soft and osseous tissues. Photo: Herraez Calzada

The word coapt means to approximate, fit together, or fasten. Coaptation refers to the immobilization of a limb with the use of an external sling, bandage, splint, or cast. Some long bone fractures are best managed with bandages or splints for temporary “first aid” immobilization until definitive treatment via surgical fixation can be achieved; other fractures can be effectively managed with a splint or cast as the primary definitive treatment. In carefully selected instances, coaptation may be used as ancillary support for internal fixation of fractures. Coaptation for temporary first aid immobilization is discussed here; use of splinting/casting for definitive treatment of selected fractures will be the subject of a future article.


In cases of traumatic fracture or luxation, temporary limb immobilization improves patient comfort, controls regional soft tissue swelling, provides a protective covering for open wounds, and can prevent closed fractures from becoming open fractures via skin penetration by sharp fracture fragments. Most fractures distal to the elbow (front limb) or stifle (hindlimb) are best treated with temporary coaptation until definitive treatment can be performed. The coaptation must immobilize the joint above and below the fracture zone, as demonstrated by the purple bandage immobilizing a tibial diaphyseal fracture in Figure 1; otherwise it may only add detrimental weight to the distal limb while failing to immobilize the fracture, as demonstrated by the red bandage in this figure.

Selected humerus/femur fractures or elbow luxations may benefit from temporary immobilization in a spica splint if a protracted delay until definitive treatment or lengthy patient travel is required, although most can be well managed with liberal use of analgesics and strict cage rest until surgery is performed. It is important that all wounds be treated according to the principles of open wound management as a prerequisite to temporary limb immobilization.


The Robert Jones bandage (RJB) is a highly versatile, soft, padded bandage for first aid management of many traumatic limb injuries, and the choice between its use and the use of temporary first aid splinting is largely one of personal preference and available supplies. The RJB does not require any splinting materials and is highly cost effective, but it does require the manual skill necessary to manage thick cotton rolls. Temporary first aid splints, on the other hand, use small rolls of cast padding that are easier to manage, but require various splint materials and the manual skill to manage them. The RJB is not suitable for treatment of fractures proximal to the elbow or stifle; application of a spica splint is necessary if temporary coaptation is deemed appropriate for these fracture locations.


In general, the choice of splint is between a premanufactured (“off the shelf”) plastic or metallic splint and a custom-molded splint. Custom-molded splints are generally preferred based on their superior ability to provide bony alignment and immobilization and to minimize focal sites of irritation, but premanufactured splints can be appropriately used for some temporary immobilization situations. While prefabricated splints may offer some convenience, a substantial inventory must be maintained to allow appropriate fitting to patients of all sizes and various limb contours (e.g., front, hind, right, left).

The most commonly used materials for custom molded splints are thermoplastics and fiberglass. Thermoplastic splints are sometimes sold in perforated or nonperforated solid sheets (Orthoplast;, but most are sold in the form of a thermoplastic-impregnated mesh (Vet-Lite;

Thermoplastic Mesh

Thermoplastic splinting materials require the use of a hot water bath. Hot water from the faucet is insufficient to mold the material or make it self-adherent. The thermoplastic mesh is immersed in hot water (>160°F [71°C]) for 2 or 3 minutes before removal using forceps or tongs. It can then be cut, layered, and molded. Because the material is often hot during molding, the authors prefer to don 1 or 2 pairs of gloves for this step. The material should be worked well to promote adhesion between layers. If necessary, the splint can be reheated for further molding and layering. Several layers of mesh are required for most slab splint applications. The ability to cut and remold thermoplastic splints offers a potential cost efficiency since a single splint can often be remolded to the needs of several different patients over time.

Fiberglass Tape

Fiberglass casting tape is impregnated with polyurethane. Fiberglass splinting materials do not require the use of a hot water bath to activate the molding and hardening process. In fact, the rate of hardening is proportional to the water immersion temperature; room-temperature water is usually best to allow adequate time for splint molding before hardening. As with thermoplastic mesh, several layers of fiberglass casting tape are required for most slab splint applications, and the casting tape should be worked to promote adhesion between layers and to remove any wrinkles. Unlike thermoplastic mesh, once fiberglass has hardened it cannot be reheated for further molding. Hardened fiberglass material typically requires a cast cutter (or similar oscillating-type saw) to cut through multiple layers.

A recent mechanical comparison of thermoplastic and fiberglass splint materials showed that fiberglass produces the stiffer construct, but the relevance of this finding to the clinical first aid scenarios described in this article is likely nominal.1

Additionally, aluminum rods of various diameters (according to patient size) or even tongue depressors (for the very smallest patients) are used in some first
aid applications.


The following techniques have also been published in video format.2,3

Robert Jones Bandage

Supplies needed for the RJB are listed in Box 1. Sedation or general anesthesia may be required as dictated by factors such as patient mentation, comfort, and concurrent first aid procedures. Bandage/splint application is often performed immediately after radiography.

BOX 1 Supplies Needed for Robert Jones Bandage
  • 1-inch porous white adhesive tape (1 roll)
  • 12-inch cotton roll for medium to large dogs (1 roll) or 2- to 4-inch cotton cast padding for cats and small dogs (3 or 4 rolls)
  • 3- to 6-inch roll gauze (2 or 3 rolls)
  • Self-adherent elastic wrap (1 or 2 rolls)
  • Bandage scissors
  • 2-inch elastic tape
  • Plastic bag, surgical sleeve, and/or impervious bootie

Step 1: Patient Position, Wound Care, and Tape Stirrups

Position the patient in lateral recumbency with the affected limb uppermost. Manage any open wounds with appropriate clipping, cleaning, lavage, debridement, and primary layer and secondary layer dressings as dictated by first aid wound healing principles. Apply 1-inch porous white tape strips to the medial and lateral limb surfaces from the carpus/tarsus, extending approximately twice this length distal to the digits. Fold over the distal ends of the tape stirrups to create nonadherent tape tabs; a tongue depressor may be placed between the strips of tape if desired (Figure 2).

Step 2: Sizing the Bulky Cotton Roll

Unravel the roll of cotton and remove the paper. If the roll is too thick, the layer thickness can easily be separated into 2 half-thickness rolls (Figure 3). The 12-inch width is too wide for many patients and the roll can easily be torn longitudinally when unraveled or simply pulled apart (Figure 4).

Step 3: Applying the Bulky Cotton Roll

Have an assistant apply gentle traction to the limb via the tape stirrups. Hold the cotton roll as if holding a snail by its shell while wrapping the free end of the roll (representing the snail’s gooey body) snugly around the distal limb, starting at the nail beds of the central digits 3 and 4 (Figure 5). This way of holding the roll (in contrast to applying the roll with the “snail body” held upside down) allows for fine control of the tension of application. Apply the cotton roll with firm, even pressure, with approximately 50% overlap of each circumferential layer from the toes distally to mid-humerus or mid-femur proximally. There is little risk of getting this layer too tight, as it will typically tear if too much tension is applied.

Practical tip: The assistant applies countertorque on the stirrups at the level of the toes to avoid excessive rotation of the distal limb in the direction of the cotton roll application (Figure 5). If distal limb rotation occurs despite countertorque on the stirrups, successive layers can be applied in the opposite direction (i.e., alternating between clockwise and counterclockwise layer applications).

Step 4: Applying the Roll Gauze Layer

Apply roll gauze to firmly compress the underlying cotton layer. The gauze is, again, held as if holding a snail by its shell and is snugly applied from distal to proximal with ~50% overlap of each successive layer (Figure 6). It is sometimes preferable to use a criss-crossing “dovetail” pattern to maintain uniform tension and diameter throughout the bandage (Figure 7). Unlike with other bandages, compression of the thick underlying cotton layer requires that the roll gauze layer be applied with firm, snug tension in the roll.

Since firm pressure is required to compress the underlying layer, countertorque will need to be applied to the limb segment with the operator’s opposite hand or by an assistant. This layer should extend to the proximal and distal margins of the underlying cotton roll but should not be in contact with the skin. There should be no constricting bands of gauze within this layer.

Step 5: Securing the Tape Stirrups

Separate the tape stirrups and twist each one so that the adhesive surface is against the gauze wrap. The middle 2 toes should be visible through the end of the bandage (Figure 8).

Step 6: Outer (Protective) Layer

Short strips of elastic adhesive tape can be used to reinforce the distal end of the bandage. A self-adherent elastic wrap is then applied from distal to proximal using care to have ~50% overlap of each successive layer. The tension within this outer layer is regulated to generate the desired degree of compression on the underlying bandage layers; unlike with less bulky bandages, moderate tension is sometimes applied to the layer.

Rule of thumb: A properly applied RJB should feel firm (not soft and pliable) and should “thump” like a ripe watermelon. Two-inch adhesive elastic tape can be used to reinforce the upper and lower margins of the bandage if desired. Even though there is no splint material in an RJB, the compression of the thick, bulky cotton roll provides adequate immobilization to foster patient comfort when properly applied (Figure 9).

Temporary Slab Splint

In contrast to a circumferential cylindrical cast, a slab splint is a multilayered, custom-molded splint typically applied on the lateral, cranial, or caudal surface of the limb. Supplies needed for the splint are listed in Box 2.

BOX 2 Supplies Needed for Temporary (First Aid) Slab Splinting
  • 1-inch porous white adhesive tape (1 roll)
  • 2- to 4-inch cast padding (3 or 4 rolls)
  • 3- to 6-inch roll gauze (2 or 3 rolls)
  • Splinting material and hot water bath if needed (see Choice of Splinting Materials)
  • Examination gloves for operator and one assistant
  • Self-adherent elastic wrap (e.g., Vetrap; 1 or 2 rolls)
  • 2-inch elastic tape (e.g., Elastikon)
  • Bandage scissors (heavy duty)
  • 2-inch elastic tape
  • Cast cutter or similar oscillating saw
  • Plastic bag, surgical sleeve, and/or impervious bootie

Step 1: Patient Position, Wound Care, and Tape Stirrups

Follow the Step 1 instructions for the RJB.

Step 2: Applying the Padding Layer

Apply cotton or synthetic (polypropylene) cast padding snugly from distal to proximal with an ~50% overlap of successive layers, similar to that described for the RJB. The most common error with this layer is applying it too loosely; most cast padding materials will tear if they are pulled too tightly. As a general guide, some products (Specialist Cast Padding; have a micropleated texture (Figure 10) and the material should be tensioned until the pleated structure is flattened (Figure 11). Regardless of the material used, care should be used to avoid getting wrinkles in this layer (Figure 12). Take care to provide adequate padding over bony prominences, although this is more critical when splints or casts are used for longer-term primary (definitive) treatment of long bone fractures.

Step 3: Applying the Roll Gauze Layer

Apply roll gauze snugly from distal to proximal, taking care to have ~50% overlap of each circumferential wrap (a dovetail pattern is preferred by some, especially in areas of abrupt directional change such as around the tarsus or elbow). Apply even tension to the gauze roll and take care not to pull this layer too tightly, as there is less cotton padding underneath than with an RJB. This layer should extend to the proximal and distal margins of the underlying cotton roll but should not be in contact with the skin. There should be no constricting bands of gauze within this layer (Figure 13).

Step 4: Molding the Splint With Fiberglass Casting Tape

Adherence of the splint material to the underlying roll gauze layer can be prevented by temporarily placing a layer of plastic kitchen wrap between the splint and the gauze layer, but this layer will need to be removed after splint hardening because it traps moisture in the bandage. Alternatively, a layer of self-adhesive elastic wrap (e.g., Vetrap; can be used; since this material breathes, it does not require removal after hardening of the splint.

Anyone handling the fiberglass casting tape should don examination gloves to prevent contact of the resin with their skin. Activate the fiberglass casting tape by opening the package and fully submerging the roll in room-temperature water. Squeeze the roll firmly to expel excess water. Unravel the roll to a sufficient length to span from the toes to the proximal margin of the bandaged segment (spanning the joint above and below the fracture). It is advisable to slightly overestimate the length needed, as some shrinkage occurs during setting; excessive splint length can always be cut as needed, but length cannot be added after the fact.

Unravel the roll further to allow for successive layers of identical length (Figure 14). Overlap the splinting material sufficiently to provide adequate support for the fractured limb according to its inherent instability, patient size, and activity level. Usually, 4 to 6 layers are needed. The casting tape may then be lifted from the bandage so it can be worked to eliminate folds and wrinkles and to ensure adhesive bonding of the resin between successive layers (Figure 15).

Before fiberglass hardening, trim any sharp edges or excessive splint length with heavy-duty bandage scissors (Figure 16). Apply the layered splint to the cranial, lateral, or caudal surface of the limb as dictated by the bony prominences, underlying wounds, stabilization needs, and personal preference. Gentle application of a gauze layer over the top of the casting tape can ensure a nice-fitting custom mold while securing the splint to the underlying bandage (Figure 17).

Step 5: Securing the Stirrups

Securing the stirrups to the outside of the bandage and splint helps prevent them from slipping distally on the limb. Separate the tape stirrups and twist each one so that the adhesive surface is against the gauze wrap. The middle 2 toes (digits 3 and 4) should be visible through the end of the bandage.

Step 6: Outer (Protective) Layer

Apply strips of adherent elastic tape (Elastikon; around the distal and proximal margins of the bandage for reinforcement of these vulnerable regions. Apply self-adherent elastic wrap from distal to proximal with a 50% overlap. Unlike with an RJB, take care to partially unroll these elastic layers from the roll before applying them, almost tension-free, around the bandage to avoid constricting blood and lymphatic flow in the limb (Figure 18). The central 2 digits should be visible and palpable through the distal end of the bandage to allow detection of swelling (Figure 19).

Spica Splint

This splint is the least commonly used of the bandages and splints described in this article, but it may be indicated when definitive treatment for elbow luxation or femur/humerus fracture is delayed or requires lengthy patient transport. Application of the spica splint is essentially just an extension of the slab splinting process to include the patient’s torso (for a humerus fracture or elbow luxation) or pelvis (for a femur fracture), so only the additional steps are described below.

Steps 2 and 3: Padding and Gauze Roll Layers

Extend each of these layers around the patient’s torso or pelvis several times, alternating cranial and caudal to the affected limb. When applied to the front limb, this wrap remains caudal to the contralateral front limb (Figure 20); when applied to the hindlimb, this wrap remains cranial to the contralateral hindlimb. Take care to wrap cranial to the prepuce when applying the spica splint to the pelvic limb of male dogs. For both front limbs and hindlimbs, wider cast padding and gauze rolls than were used on the limb itself can be advantageous for this portion of the bandage.

Step 4: Molding and Padding

A plastic trash bag can temporarily be laid on the soft padded bandage to prevent adherence of the splint to the underlying layers during the molding process. Activate the splinting material in water, and size and mold layers together as with any splint. Lay the melded layers of splinting material on the patient with splint material extending from the toes distally to slightly across the patient’s dorsal midline proximally. Manually mold the splint to the contours of the patient’s limb and trunk (Figure 21). Once the splinting material has set, temporarily remove it from the patient and trim any sharp edges and/or excessive length. The upper portions of the splint itself can be padded by circumferentially wrapping it with 2 or 3 layers of cast padding and self-adhesive elastic wrap (Figure 22).

Step 5: Securing the Splint

Use roll gauze to secure the splint to the underlying bandage (Figure 23). Again, wider rolls may prove helpful for securing the upper portions of the spica splint to the patient’s trunk.

Step 7: Applying the Outer (Protective) Layer

Be especially careful with this elastic layer on spica splints applied to the front limb, as compression of the patient’s thorax can compromise respiratory function (Figure 24). Since most of these patients are heavily sedated or anesthetized during splint application and some have preexisting pulmonary trauma, their ventilation must be closely monitored after spica splint application. If necessary, the outer elastic wrap can be cut and reapplied more loosely.


After placement of any bandage or splint, observe the patient closely for toe swelling, bandage loosening, soiling, or other problems. The bandage can be partially protected from water and soiling by covering it with a sleeve harvested from a clean, disposable surgical gown. A purpose-specific protective boot (e.g., Medipaw; should be used when the patient has to walk on wet surfaces (e.g., wet grass, snow, kennel runs) for elimination purposes. If the patient is to be discharged from the hospital to seek care from another provider, a tape strip can be applied to the outside of the bandage that states, “This bandage/splint is NOT suitable for definitive treatment of this fracture. Seek further veterinary care no later than DATE LISTED HERE.”


1. Wagoner AL, Allen MJ, Zindl C, et al. Evaluating stiffness of fibreglass and thermoplastic splint materials and interfragmentary motion in a canine tibial fracture model. Vet Compar Orthop Traumatol

2. Palmer RH. Bandages, Slings, Splints & Casts – I. VideoVet. Accessed May 28, 2019.

3. Palmer RH. Orthopedic & Wound First Aid – I. VideoVet. Accessed May 28, 2019.

First Aid/Temporary Immobilization of Limb Fractures With Bandages and Splints CE Quiz

Learning Objectives

This article describes the indications for first aid/temporary immobilization of limb fractures and provides step-by-step application techniques for common bandages and splints.

Topic Overview

Upon completion of this article, readers should be able to:

1. List common indications for first aid/temporary immobilization of limb fractures

2. Compare and contrast the options for commonly used first aid splinting materials

3. Describe the application technique for first aid immobilization of limb fractures using a Robert Jones bandage, temporary slab splint, or spica splint

The article you have read has been submitted for RACE approval for 1 hour of continuing education credit and will be opened for enrollment when approval has been received. To receive credit, take the approved test online for free at Free registration on is required. Questions and answers online may differ from those below. Tests are valid for 2 years from the date of approval.

1. Which of the following statements regarding coaptation is correct?

a. It refers to any form of fracture immobilization, including bone plate fixation.

b. It is not appropriate for definitive treatment of any long bone fractures.

c. First aid coaptation refers to temporary immobilization until definitive treatment is performed.

d. It is not appropriate for ancillary support for internal fixation under any circumstances.

2. Which of the following is not a benefit of temporary/first aid immobilization of a limb fracture?

a. Improved patient comfort

b. Control of regional soft tissue swelling

c. Protection of open wounds

d. Inherent anatomic reduction of fracture fragments

3. In comparing and contrasting options for temporary/first aid immobilization of a limb fracture, which of the following statements is not correct?

a. Robert Jones bandages have relatively low material costs.

b. Robert Jones bandages require the manual skills needed to manage thick cotton rolls.

c. Robert Jones bandages are suitable for fractures above and below the elbow/stifle.

d. Temporary splint application requires the manual skills needed to manage splint materials.

4. Which of the following is an advantage of premanufactured splints for first aid immobilization?

a. They are convenient for the veterinarian.

b. They fit right the first time and every time.

c. One size fits all.

d. They force the bone to fit the splint.

5. Which of the following statements regarding temporary/first aid splint immobilization of a limb fracture using thermoplastic material is not correct?

a. These splints require the use of a hot water bath to make them moldable.

b. These splints can be remolded after they have set by placing them in hot water again.

c. These splints often require multiple layers, and the layers should be worked to meld them together.

d. These are not cost effective because the splint material cannot be reused.

6. Which of the following statements regarding temporary/first aid splint immobilization of a limb fracture using fiberglass casting tape is not correct?

a. The tape is impregnated with polyurethane, which requires exposure to a hot water bath to activate the setting process.

b. The tape cannot be remolded once it has set.

c. Splints made of fiberglass casting tape often require multiple layers, and the layers should be worked to meld them together.

d. Once a layered fiberglass splint has set, cutting typically requires a cast cutter.

7. Which of the following statements regarding Robert Jones bandage application is not correct?

a. The bulky cotton roll must usually be sized to the patient.

b. Sizing the bulky cotton roll may include splitting the roll’s thickness in half.

c. Sizing the bulky cotton roll may include tearing the roll’s width.

d. There is no easy way to size the bulky cotton roll.

8. Which of the following statements about the Robert Jones bandage is not correct?

a. The roll gauze layer should be pulled more snugly than with other bandages to compress the underlying thick cotton roll.

b. An effort must often be made to provide some countertorque to the limb segment while the gauze layer is being pulled taut.

c. Unlike with less bulky bandages, partial unraveling of the outer self-adherent elastic wrap from the roll is typically not necessary.

d. Because there is no splint material within the bandage, it offers limited fracture immobilization and seldom improves patient comfort.

9. Which of the following statements about application of a temporary slab splint is not correct?

a. It is a common error to apply the cast padding layer too loosely.

b. It is not necessary to work out wrinkles or promote adhesion between the multiple layers of splinting material.

c. As a general guide, cast padding materials designed with micropleated texture should be tensioned until the pleated structure is flattened.

d. Most cast padding materials will tear if pulled too snugly.

10. Which of the following statements about application of a temporary spica splint is not correct?

a. It is essentially an extension of a temporary slab splint.

b. Padding, gauze, and outer protective layers wrapped around the trunk should pass caudal to the contralateral front limb but cranial to the contralateral pelvic limb.

c. A plastic trash bag can be incorporated into the splint layers.

d. Care must be taken not to wrap too tightly around the chest because this can compromise respiratory function. Protection Status
[gravityform id="6" title="false" description="false"]
<div class='gf_browser_unknown gform_wrapper' id='gform_wrapper_6' style='display:none'><form method='post' enctype='multipart/form-data' id='gform_6' action='/first-aid-temporary-immobilization-of-limb-fractures-with-bandages-and-splints/'> <div class='gform_body'><ul id='gform_fields_6' class='gform_fields top_label form_sublabel_below description_below'><li id='field_6_1' class='gfield gfield_contains_required field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><label class='gfield_label gfield_label_before_complex' >Name<span class='gfield_required'>*</span></label><div class='ginput_complex ginput_container no_prefix has_first_name no_middle_name has_last_name no_suffix gf_name_has_2 ginput_container_name' id='input_6_1'> <span id='input_6_1_3_container' class='name_first' > <input type='text' name='input_1.3' id='input_6_1_3' value='' aria-label='First name' aria-required="true" aria-invalid="false" /> <label for='input_6_1_3' >First</label> </span> <span id='input_6_1_6_container' class='name_last' > <input type='text' name='input_1.6' id='input_6_1_6' value='' aria-label='Last name' aria-required="true" aria-invalid="false" /> <label for='input_6_1_6' >Last</label> </span> </div></li><li id='field_6_2' class='gfield gfield_contains_required field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><label class='gfield_label' for='input_6_2' >Email<span class='gfield_required'>*</span></label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_email'> <input name='input_2' id='input_6_2' type='text' value='' class='medium' aria-required="true" aria-invalid="false" /> </div></li><li id='field_6_7' class='gfield gfield_contains_required field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><label class='gfield_label' for='input_6_7' >Profession / Role<span class='gfield_required'>*</span></label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_select'><select name='input_7' id='input_6_7' class='medium gfield_select' aria-required="true" aria-invalid="false"><option value='Veterinarian' >Veterinarian</option><option value='Veterinary Nurse / Technician' >Veterinary Nurse / Technician</option><option value='Practice Manager / Veterinary Assistant / Support Staff' >Practice Manager / Veterinary Assistant / Support Staff</option><option value='Student (Veterinarian or Veterinary Nurse)' >Student (Veterinarian or Veterinary Nurse)</option><option value='Other' >Other</option></select></div></li><li id='field_6_20' class='gfield gfield_html gfield_html_formatted gfield_no_follows_desc field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><br></li><li id='field_6_15' class='gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_above gfield_visibility_visible' ><label class='gfield_label' >Inbox Preferences</label><div class='gfield_description' id='gfield_description_6_15'>Customize your inbox by selecting the areas you are most interested in. </div><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_checkbox'><ul class='gfield_checkbox' id='input_6_15'><li class='gchoice_6_15_1'> <input name='input_15.1' type='checkbox' value='NAVC Better Care Weekly&lt;br&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;font-size: 12px;color: #808080&quot;&gt;A weekly roundup of the new and noteworthy innovations and educational opportunities in the veterinary industry.&lt;/div&gt;' checked='checked' id='choice_6_15_1' /> <label for='choice_6_15_1' id='label_6_15_1'>NAVC Better Care Weekly<br><div style="font-size: 12px; color: #808080;">A weekly roundup of the new and noteworthy innovations and educational opportunities in the veterinary industry.</div></label> </li><li class='gchoice_6_15_2'> <input name='input_15.2' type='checkbox' value='Today&#039;s Veterinary Business eNewsletter&lt;br&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;font-size: 12px;color: #808080&quot;&gt;Covers topics relating to practice management, financial metrics, marketing, retailing and merchandising, and industry news.&lt;/div&gt;' id='choice_6_15_2' /> <label for='choice_6_15_2' id='label_6_15_2'>Today's Veterinary Business eNewsletter<br><div style="font-size: 12px; color: #808080;">Covers topics relating to practice management, financial metrics, marketing, retailing and merchandising, and industry news.</div></label> </li><li class='gchoice_6_15_3'> <input name='input_15.3' type='checkbox' value='Today&#039;s Veterinary Nurse eNewsletter&lt;br&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;font-size: 12px;color: #808080&quot;&gt;Provides practical, peer-reviewed companion animal educational CE for veterinary nurses, technicians and assistants.&lt;/div&gt;' id='choice_6_15_3' /> <label for='choice_6_15_3' id='label_6_15_3'>Today's Veterinary Nurse eNewsletter<br><div style="font-size: 12px; color: #808080;">Provides practical, peer-reviewed companion animal educational CE for veterinary nurses, technicians and assistants.</div></label> </li><li class='gchoice_6_15_4'> <input name='input_15.4' type='checkbox' value='Today&#039;s Veterinary Practice eNewsletter&lt;br&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;font-size: 12px;color: #808080&quot;&gt;Provides practical, peer-reviewed articles focused on the latest diagnostic and treatment techniques to enhance your knowledge and confidence.&lt;/div&gt;' id='choice_6_15_4' /> <label for='choice_6_15_4' id='label_6_15_4'>Today's Veterinary Practice eNewsletter<br><div style="font-size: 12px; color: #808080;">Provides practical, peer-reviewed articles focused on the latest diagnostic and treatment techniques to enhance your knowledge and confidence.</div></label> </li><li class='gchoice_6_15_5'> <input name='input_15.5' type='checkbox' value='VetFolio eNewsletter&lt;br&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;font-size: 12px;color: #808080&quot;&gt;Discover online CE resources offered in a variety of formats including videos, podcasts, webinars and more.&lt;/div&gt;' id='choice_6_15_5' /> <label for='choice_6_15_5' id='label_6_15_5'>VetFolio eNewsletter<br><div style="font-size: 12px; color: #808080;">Discover online CE resources offered in a variety of formats including videos, podcasts, webinars and more.</div></label> </li><li class='gchoice_6_15_6'> <input name='input_15.6' type='checkbox' value='Partner Emails&lt;br&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;font-size: 12px;color: #808080&quot;&gt;Exclusive deals and information from our partners.&lt;/div&gt;' id='choice_6_15_6' /> <label for='choice_6_15_6' id='label_6_15_6'>Partner Emails<br><div style="font-size: 12px; color: #808080;">Exclusive deals and information from our partners.</div></label> </li></ul></div></li><li id='field_6_19' class='gfield gfield_html gfield_html_formatted field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><br></li><li id='field_6_22' class='gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><label class='gfield_label' >Do you want to be added to our postal mailing list?</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_checkbox'><ul class='gfield_checkbox' id='input_6_22'><li class='gchoice_6_22_1'> <input name='input_22.1' type='checkbox' value='Yes, I love mail!' id='choice_6_22_1' /> <label for='choice_6_22_1' id='label_6_22_1'>Yes, I love mail!</label> </li><li class='gchoice_6_22_2'> <input name='input_22.2' type='checkbox' value='No thank you.' id='choice_6_22_2' /> <label for='choice_6_22_2' id='label_6_22_2'>No thank you.</label> </li></ul></div></li><li id='field_6_10' class='gfield gfield_contains_required field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><label class='gfield_label gfield_label_before_complex' >Please provide your mailing address below.<span class='gfield_required'>*</span></label> <div class='ginput_complex ginput_container has_street has_street2 has_city has_state has_zip has_country ginput_container_address' id='input_6_10' > <span class='ginput_full address_line_1' id='input_6_10_1_container' > <input type='text' name='input_10.1' id='input_6_10_1' value='' aria-required="true"/> <label for='input_6_10_1' id='input_6_10_1_label' >Street Address</label> </span><span class='ginput_full address_line_2' id='input_6_10_2_container' > <input type='text' name='input_10.2' id='input_6_10_2' value='' /> <label for='input_6_10_2' id='input_6_10_2_label' >Address Line 2</label> </span><span class='ginput_left address_city' id='input_6_10_3_container' > <input type='text' name='input_10.3' id='input_6_10_3' value='' aria-required="true"/> <label for='input_6_10_3' id='input_6_10_3_label' >City</label> </span><span class='ginput_right address_state' id='input_6_10_4_container' > <input type='text' name='input_10.4' id='input_6_10_4' value='' aria-required="true"/> <label for='input_6_10_4' id='input_6_10_4_label' >State / Province / Region</label> </span><span class='ginput_left address_zip' id='input_6_10_5_container' > <input type='text' name='input_10.5' id='input_6_10_5' value='' aria-required="true"/> <label for='input_6_10_5' id='input_6_10_5_label' >ZIP / Postal Code</label> </span><span class='ginput_right address_country' id='input_6_10_6_container' > <select name='input_10.6' id='input_6_10_6' aria-required="true"><option value='' selected='selected'></option><option value='Afghanistan' >Afghanistan</option><option value='Åland Islands' >Åland Islands</option><option value='Albania' >Albania</option><option value='Algeria' >Algeria</option><option value='American Samoa' >American Samoa</option><option value='Andorra' >Andorra</option><option value='Angola' >Angola</option><option value='Anguilla' >Anguilla</option><option value='Antarctica' >Antarctica</option><option value='Antigua and Barbuda' >Antigua and Barbuda</option><option value='Argentina' >Argentina</option><option value='Armenia' >Armenia</option><option value='Aruba' >Aruba</option><option value='Australia' >Australia</option><option value='Austria' >Austria</option><option value='Azerbaijan' >Azerbaijan</option><option value='Bahamas' >Bahamas</option><option value='Bahrain' >Bahrain</option><option value='Bangladesh' >Bangladesh</option><option value='Barbados' >Barbados</option><option value='Belarus' >Belarus</option><option value='Belgium' >Belgium</option><option value='Belize' >Belize</option><option value='Benin' >Benin</option><option value='Bermuda' >Bermuda</option><option value='Bhutan' >Bhutan</option><option value='Bolivia' >Bolivia</option><option value='Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba' >Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba</option><option value='Bosnia and Herzegovina' >Bosnia and Herzegovina</option><option value='Botswana' >Botswana</option><option value='Bouvet Island' >Bouvet Island</option><option value='Brazil' >Brazil</option><option value='British Indian Ocean Territory' >British Indian Ocean Territory</option><option value='Brunei Darussalam' >Brunei Darussalam</option><option value='Bulgaria' >Bulgaria</option><option value='Burkina Faso' >Burkina Faso</option><option value='Burundi' >Burundi</option><option value='Cambodia' >Cambodia</option><option value='Cameroon' >Cameroon</option><option value='Canada' >Canada</option><option value='Cape Verde' >Cape Verde</option><option value='Cayman Islands' >Cayman Islands</option><option value='Central African Republic' >Central African Republic</option><option value='Chad' >Chad</option><option value='Chile' >Chile</option><option value='China' >China</option><option value='Christmas Island' >Christmas Island</option><option value='Cocos Islands' >Cocos Islands</option><option value='Colombia' >Colombia</option><option value='Comoros' >Comoros</option><option value='Congo, Democratic Republic of the' >Congo, Democratic Republic of the</option><option value='Congo, Republic of the' >Congo, Republic of the</option><option value='Cook Islands' >Cook Islands</option><option value='Costa Rica' >Costa Rica</option><option value='Côte d&#039;Ivoire' >Côte d&#039;Ivoire</option><option value='Croatia' >Croatia</option><option value='Cuba' >Cuba</option><option value='Curaçao' >Curaçao</option><option value='Cyprus' >Cyprus</option><option value='Czech Republic' >Czech Republic</option><option value='Denmark' >Denmark</option><option value='Djibouti' >Djibouti</option><option value='Dominica' >Dominica</option><option value='Dominican Republic' >Dominican Republic</option><option value='Ecuador' >Ecuador</option><option value='Egypt' >Egypt</option><option value='El Salvador' >El Salvador</option><option value='Equatorial Guinea' >Equatorial Guinea</option><option value='Eritrea' >Eritrea</option><option value='Estonia' >Estonia</option><option value='Eswatini (Swaziland)' >Eswatini (Swaziland)</option><option value='Ethiopia' >Ethiopia</option><option value='Falkland Islands' >Falkland Islands</option><option value='Faroe Islands' >Faroe Islands</option><option value='Fiji' >Fiji</option><option value='Finland' >Finland</option><option value='France' >France</option><option value='French Guiana' >French Guiana</option><option value='French Polynesia' >French Polynesia</option><option value='French Southern Territories' >French Southern Territories</option><option value='Gabon' >Gabon</option><option value='Gambia' >Gambia</option><option value='Georgia' >Georgia</option><option value='Germany' >Germany</option><option value='Ghana' >Ghana</option><option value='Gibraltar' >Gibraltar</option><option value='Greece' >Greece</option><option value='Greenland' >Greenland</option><option value='Grenada' >Grenada</option><option value='Guadeloupe' >Guadeloupe</option><option value='Guam' >Guam</option><option value='Guatemala' >Guatemala</option><option value='Guernsey' >Guernsey</option><option value='Guinea' >Guinea</option><option value='Guinea-Bissau' >Guinea-Bissau</option><option value='Guyana' >Guyana</option><option value='Haiti' >Haiti</option><option value='Heard and McDonald Islands' >Heard and McDonald Islands</option><option value='Holy See' >Holy See</option><option value='Honduras' >Honduras</option><option value='Hong Kong' >Hong Kong</option><option value='Hungary' >Hungary</option><option value='Iceland' >Iceland</option><option value='India' >India</option><option value='Indonesia' >Indonesia</option><option value='Iran' >Iran</option><option value='Iraq' >Iraq</option><option value='Ireland' >Ireland</option><option value='Isle of Man' >Isle of Man</option><option value='Israel' >Israel</option><option value='Italy' >Italy</option><option value='Jamaica' >Jamaica</option><option value='Japan' >Japan</option><option value='Jersey' >Jersey</option><option value='Jordan' >Jordan</option><option value='Kazakhstan' >Kazakhstan</option><option value='Kenya' >Kenya</option><option value='Kiribati' >Kiribati</option><option value='Kuwait' >Kuwait</option><option value='Kyrgyzstan' >Kyrgyzstan</option><option value='Lao People&#039;s Democratic Republic' >Lao People&#039;s Democratic Republic</option><option value='Latvia' >Latvia</option><option value='Lebanon' >Lebanon</option><option value='Lesotho' >Lesotho</option><option value='Liberia' >Liberia</option><option value='Libya' >Libya</option><option value='Liechtenstein' >Liechtenstein</option><option value='Lithuania' >Lithuania</option><option value='Luxembourg' >Luxembourg</option><option value='Macau' >Macau</option><option value='Macedonia' >Macedonia</option><option value='Madagascar' >Madagascar</option><option value='Malawi' >Malawi</option><option value='Malaysia' >Malaysia</option><option value='Maldives' >Maldives</option><option value='Mali' >Mali</option><option value='Malta' >Malta</option><option value='Marshall Islands' >Marshall Islands</option><option value='Martinique' >Martinique</option><option value='Mauritania' >Mauritania</option><option value='Mauritius' >Mauritius</option><option value='Mayotte' >Mayotte</option><option value='Mexico' >Mexico</option><option value='Micronesia' >Micronesia</option><option value='Moldova' >Moldova</option><option value='Monaco' >Monaco</option><option value='Mongolia' >Mongolia</option><option value='Montenegro' >Montenegro</option><option value='Montserrat' >Montserrat</option><option value='Morocco' >Morocco</option><option value='Mozambique' >Mozambique</option><option value='Myanmar' >Myanmar</option><option value='Namibia' >Namibia</option><option value='Nauru' >Nauru</option><option value='Nepal' >Nepal</option><option value='Netherlands' >Netherlands</option><option value='New Caledonia' >New Caledonia</option><option value='New Zealand' >New Zealand</option><option value='Nicaragua' >Nicaragua</option><option value='Niger' >Niger</option><option value='Nigeria' >Nigeria</option><option value='Niue' >Niue</option><option value='Norfolk Island' >Norfolk Island</option><option value='North Korea' >North Korea</option><option value='Northern Mariana Islands' >Northern Mariana Islands</option><option value='Norway' >Norway</option><option value='Oman' >Oman</option><option value='Pakistan' >Pakistan</option><option value='Palau' >Palau</option><option value='Palestine, State of' >Palestine, State of</option><option value='Panama' >Panama</option><option value='Papua New Guinea' >Papua New Guinea</option><option value='Paraguay' >Paraguay</option><option value='Peru' >Peru</option><option value='Philippines' >Philippines</option><option value='Pitcairn' >Pitcairn</option><option value='Poland' >Poland</option><option value='Portugal' >Portugal</option><option value='Puerto Rico' >Puerto Rico</option><option value='Qatar' >Qatar</option><option value='Réunion' >Réunion</option><option value='Romania' >Romania</option><option value='Russia' >Russia</option><option value='Rwanda' >Rwanda</option><option value='Saint Barthélemy' >Saint Barthélemy</option><option value='Saint Helena' >Saint Helena</option><option value='Saint Kitts and Nevis' >Saint Kitts and Nevis</option><option value='Saint Lucia' >Saint Lucia</option><option value='Saint Martin' >Saint Martin</option><option value='Saint Pierre and Miquelon' >Saint Pierre and Miquelon</option><option value='Saint Vincent and the Grenadines' >Saint Vincent and the Grenadines</option><option value='Samoa' >Samoa</option><option value='San Marino' >San Marino</option><option value='Sao Tome and Principe' >Sao Tome and Principe</option><option value='Saudi Arabia' >Saudi Arabia</option><option value='Senegal' >Senegal</option><option value='Serbia' >Serbia</option><option value='Seychelles' >Seychelles</option><option value='Sierra Leone' >Sierra Leone</option><option value='Singapore' >Singapore</option><option value='Sint Maarten' >Sint Maarten</option><option value='Slovakia' >Slovakia</option><option value='Slovenia' >Slovenia</option><option value='Solomon Islands' >Solomon Islands</option><option value='Somalia' >Somalia</option><option value='South Africa' >South Africa</option><option value='South Georgia' >South Georgia</option><option value='South Korea' >South Korea</option><option value='South Sudan' >South Sudan</option><option value='Spain' >Spain</option><option value='Sri Lanka' >Sri Lanka</option><option value='Sudan' >Sudan</option><option value='Suriname' >Suriname</option><option value='Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands' >Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands</option><option value='Sweden' >Sweden</option><option value='Switzerland' >Switzerland</option><option value='Syria' >Syria</option><option value='Taiwan' >Taiwan</option><option value='Tajikistan' >Tajikistan</option><option value='Tanzania' >Tanzania</option><option value='Thailand' >Thailand</option><option value='Timor-Leste' >Timor-Leste</option><option value='Togo' >Togo</option><option value='Tokelau' >Tokelau</option><option value='Tonga' >Tonga</option><option value='Trinidad and Tobago' >Trinidad and Tobago</option><option value='Tunisia' >Tunisia</option><option value='Turkey' >Turkey</option><option value='Turkmenistan' >Turkmenistan</option><option value='Turks and Caicos Islands' >Turks and Caicos Islands</option><option value='Tuvalu' >Tuvalu</option><option value='Uganda' >Uganda</option><option value='Ukraine' >Ukraine</option><option value='United Arab Emirates' >United Arab Emirates</option><option value='United Kingdom' >United Kingdom</option><option value='United States' >United States</option><option value='Uruguay' >Uruguay</option><option value='US Minor Outlying Islands' >US Minor Outlying Islands</option><option value='Uzbekistan' >Uzbekistan</option><option value='Vanuatu' >Vanuatu</option><option value='Venezuela' >Venezuela</option><option value='Vietnam' >Vietnam</option><option value='Virgin Islands, British' >Virgin Islands, British</option><option value='Virgin Islands, U.S.' >Virgin Islands, U.S.</option><option value='Wallis and Futuna' >Wallis and Futuna</option><option value='Western Sahara' >Western Sahara</option><option value='Yemen' >Yemen</option><option value='Zambia' >Zambia</option><option value='Zimbabwe' >Zimbabwe</option></select> <label for='input_6_10_6' id='input_6_10_6_label' >Country</label> </span> <div class='gf_clear gf_clear_complex'></div> </div></li> </ul></div> <div class='gform_footer top_label'> <input type='submit' id='gform_submit_button_6' class='gform_button button' value='Sign Up' onclick='if(window["gf_submitting_6"]){return false;} window["gf_submitting_6"]=true; ' onkeypress='if( event.keyCode == 13 ){ if(window["gf_submitting_6"]){return false;} window["gf_submitting_6"]=true; jQuery("#gform_6").trigger("submit",[true]); }' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='is_submit_6' value='1' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_submit' value='6' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_unique_id' value='' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='state_6' value='WyJbXSIsIjNkNTNhNjhlOThlOGY4N2JlZWZiNTRmZDhlZDQ5OWI3Il0=' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_target_page_number_6' id='gform_target_page_number_6' value='0' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_source_page_number_6' id='gform_source_page_number_6' value='1' /> <input type='hidden' name='gform_field_values' value='' /> </div> </form> </div><script type='text/javascript'> jQuery(document).bind('gform_post_render', function(event, formId, currentPage){if(formId == 6) {gf_global["number_formats"][6] = {"1":{"price":false,"value":false},"2":{"price":false,"value":false},"7":{"price":false,"value":false},"20":{"price":false,"value":false},"15":{"price":false,"value":false},"19":{"price":false,"value":false},"22":{"price":false,"value":false},"10":{"price":false,"value":false}};if(window['jQuery']){if(!window['gf_form_conditional_logic'])window['gf_form_conditional_logic'] = new Array();window['gf_form_conditional_logic'][6] = { logic: { 10: {"field":{"actionType":"show","logicType":"any","rules":[{"fieldId":"22","operator":"is","value":"Yes, I love mail!"}]},"nextButton":null,"section":null} }, dependents: { 10: [10] }, animation: 1, defaults: {"1":{"1.2":"","1.3":"","1.4":"","1.6":"","1.8":""},"15":["choice_6_15_1"],"10":{"10.1":"","10.2":"","10.3":"","10.4":"","10.5":"","10.6":""}}, fields: {"1":[],"2":[],"7":[],"20":[],"15":[],"19":[],"22":[10],"10":[]} }; if(!window['gf_number_format'])window['gf_number_format'] = 'decimal_dot';jQuery(document).ready(function(){gf_apply_rules(6, [10], true);jQuery('#gform_wrapper_6').show();jQuery(document).trigger('gform_post_conditional_logic', [6, null, true]);} );} gformInitChosenFields('#input_6_7','No results matched');} } );jQuery(document).bind('gform_post_conditional_logic', function(event, formId, fields, isInit){gformInitChosenFields('#input_6_7','No results matched');} );</script><script type='text/javascript'> jQuery(document).ready(function(){jQuery(document).trigger('gform_post_render', [6, 1]) } ); </script>