Emergency Medicine/Critical Care

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Fluid Therapy in Critical Care

Intravenous fluid administration is probably the most frequently used therapy in veterinary hospitals. Aggressive IV fluid resuscitation in emergent patients and continuous IV fluid administration in hospitalized patients have long been considered fundamental in the management of critically ill animals. However, research into whether the type and volume of fluids infused can contribute to comorbidities and decrease the chances of a favorable outcome continues. This article reviews new trends in fluid therapy in human and veterinary critical care medicine.

environmental lung injuries in small animals

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Treating Environmental Lung Injuries: Drowning and Smoke Inhalation

Respiratory Distress Management of a small animal with an environmental lung injury—e.g., due to drowning—differs from the care given for other types of respiratory compromise. Environmental lung injury can result from several causes, including drowning or smoke exposure from enclosed-space fires. Management of patients with environmental lung injuries differs from management of patients with the …

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Critical Care Are Normal Electrolytes Really Normal?

Electrolyte disturbances are frequently encountered in veterinary patients and may warrant close evaluation and monitoring. Diseases of the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract and endocrinopathies often result in changes to electrolytes.1-3 Accurate initial assessment and serial monitoring for trends in electrolyte disturbances are essential to guide appropriate treatment of the underlying condition. However, in certain situations, …

Acute Glaucoma: A True Emergency

Shelby Reinstein, DVM, MS, DACVO Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Center Levittown, Pennsylvania PRONE BREEDS Primary glaucoma is strongly breed related, and some of the most commonly affected dog breeds are the beagle, basset hound, Boston terrier, cocker spaniel, and shar-pei. THE BASICS OF GLAUCOMA Glaucoma is an elevation of the intraocular pressure (IOP) with associated …

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Nursing Care & Triage for Head Trauma Patients

Oriana D. Scislowicz, BS, LVT This article covers the gamut from triage and emergency assessment, initial stabilization, physical examination, diagnosis, surgical and/or medical therapy, and monitoring of the patient. Although animals with head trauma are frequently presented to emergency hospitals, veterinary teams at general practices encounter these patients as well. Therefore, understanding triage and emergency …

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Helpful Tips For Managing Wounds In Veterinary Patients

David Dycus, DVM, MS, & Jennifer Wardlaw, DVM, MS, Diplomate ACVS Successful wound management depends on taking the correct approach to the lesion, including deciding whether to close it or manage it as an open wound. This article reviews this critical decision-making process and offers tip and techniques for wound management.   Successful wound management …

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Managing Patients with Temporary Tracheostomy Tubes

Lila K. Sierra, CVT, VTS (Emergency & Critical Care) A temporary tracheostomy tube (TT) is a device placed in the trachea, between the tracheal rings, through a surgical opening called a tracheotomy. It provides access to the lower airways, allowing: Airway protection Airway patency (if upper airway is obstructed) Access for airway hygiene Mechanical ventilation. …

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