Are Normal Electrolytes Really Normal?
Electrolyte disturbances are frequently encountered in veterinary patients and may warrant close evaluation and monitoring. Diseases of the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract and endocrinopathies often result in changes to electrolytes.1-3 Accurate initial assessment and serial monitoring for trends in electrolyte disturbances are essential to guide appropriate treatment of the underlying condition. However, in certain situations, …
Ultrasonography of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Ileum, Cecum, Colon
Elizabeth Huynh, DVM Clifford R. Berry, DVM, DACVR University of Florida Welcome to our series of articles on small animal abdominal ultrasonography. The initial articles provided an overview of basic ultrasonography principles and a discussion about how to perform a systematic scan of the abdomen. The rest of the series discusses ultrasound evaluation of specific …
Ultrasonography of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Stomach, Duodenum, and Jejunum
Elizabeth Huynh, DVM, and Clifford Berry, DVM, DACVR University of Florida LOCALIZATION AND SCANNING TECHNIQUE Typically, an 8 to 10-MHz curved array or 12-MHz linear transducer is used for dogs and cats. Animals are usually scanned in dorsal recumbency; however, right and left lateral recumbency may assist with displacement of gas and fluid in the …
Diarrhea, Vomiting, and Food, Oh My! Nutritional Management for Gastrointestinal Disease
Angela Witzel, DVM, PhD, DACVN The University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine Nutritional management of gastrointestinal disease is a broad topic incorporating both acute and chronic diseases of the stomach, small intestines, pancreas, gallbladder, and colon. As such, this article introduces the types of gastrointestinal diets available to help the clinician decide which one …
Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Dogs and Cats
Kayode Garraway, DVM Karin Allenspach, DVM, PhD, DECVIM-CA Albert Jergens, DVM, MS, PhD, DACVIM (SAIM) Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine CREATURE DISCOMFORTS Inflammatory bowel diseases are the most common cause of chronic vomiting and diarrhea in dogs and cats. The term IBD is used to describe a group of conditions characterized by inflammation …
Chronic Vomiting in Cats: When to Recommend Endoscopy
Kyle Restle, DVM Jacqueline Whittemore, DVM, PhD, DACVIM University of Tennessee School of Veterinary Medicine PET PEEVES Chronic vomiting in cats is a frustrating condition, and accurate diagnosis hinges on use of a systematic approach. Endoscopy is warranted after systemic diseases have been ruled out, particularly in cases without solitary jejunal disease. Chronic vomiting is …
Intestinal Microbes and Digestive System Disease in Dogs
Jan S. Suchodolski, MedVet, DrVetMed, PhD, AGAF, DACVM Texas A&M University The intestinal microbiota comprises viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. In the past, the word microflora has been used to describe this complex ecosystem, but microbiota (from –bios, “living organisms”) is the more appropriate term. The microbiome is the collective genome of all these microbes. …
Gastric Dilatation and Volvulus: Stabilization and Surgery
Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) is an acute, life-threatening disorder in dogs, characterized by abnormal twisting of the stomach on its mesenteric axis, with subsequent gastric gas accumulation and distention.
Canine Insulinoma: Diagnosis, Treatment, & Staging
Aside from a histologic confirmation of insulinoma, no currently available diagnostic test provides a definitive diagnosis of insulinoma. Existing techniques may help increase suspicion for an insulin-secreting tumor but, with most diagnostic testing, it is imperative to interpret all results in the context of the coexisting clinical signs.