Internal MedicineThe Asthmatic Cat: Management Guidelines
Tekla Lee-Fowler, DVM, MS, DACVIM (SAIM) Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine Asthma Therapy Management of the actue and the chronic asthmatic feline patient must be addressed using a multi-modal, anti-inflammatory approach. Feline asthma is an inflammatory condition of the lower airways that manifests clinically as a chronic cough and, in some cases, intermittent exacerbations …
Fluid Therapy in Hospitalized Patients (Part 2) Electrolyte Abnormalities and Fluid Balance
Bridget M. Lyons, VMD Lori S. Waddell, DVM, DACVECC University of Pennsylvania HOLDING WATER Water loss may result from pure water loss, as seen with diabetes insipidus, elevated body temperature, primary hypodipsia, and water restriction. Alternatively, it may occur with loss of fluids that are hypotonic relative to plasma, such as with vomiting, diarrhea, third-space …
Fluid Therapy: Part 1 Fluid Therapy in Hospitalized Patients: Patient Assessment and Fluid Choices
Bridget M. Lyons, VMD Lori S. Waddell, DVM, DACVECC University of Pennsylvania GO WITH THE FLOW Fluid therapy is a mainstay of care in the hospitalized small animal patient. Assessment of a patient’s fluid deficits and ongoing needs will help determine what variety of fluid and rate to use. Fluid therapy is an essential component …
ACVN Nutrition NotesTo Feed or Not to Feed? Controversies in the Nutritional Management of Pancreatitis
nutritional management of pancreatitis continues to be guided primarily by the human literature and clinical experience due to lack of controlled clinical trials. Any…
The Yellow Cat: Diagnostic & Therapeutic StrategiesCE Article
There is no mystery when it comes to a “yellow” cat. Icterus and jaundice—both of which describe a yellowish pigmentation of the skin—indicate hyperbilirubinemia, a 5- to 10-fold elevation in serum bilirubin concentration.
However, this is where the certainty ends and the diagnostic challenge begins. The icteric cat presentation is not a sensitive or specific marker of disease, despite the visually obvious and impressive clinical sign…
Uncovering the Cause of Fever in Dogs
When describing FUO in dogs, fever is usually defined as greater than 103.5°F to 104°F (39.7–40°C), with no duration of fever specified. In animals, the path to revealing the cause of persistent fever can be lengthy and expensive but, in most patients, an etiology can be eventually identified
Early Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease in Dogs & Cats: Use of Serum Creatinine & Symmetric Dimethylarginine
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common cause of decreased quality of life as well as death in dogs and cats. The prevalence of CKD has been estimated to be 0.5% to 1% in dogs and 1% to 3% in cats,1,2 but it increases with age, especially in cats. An estimated 30% to 50% of cats 15 years of age or older have CKD.
Glycemic Control of Hospitalized Diabetic Patients
Glycemic control in diabetic dogs and cats may be jeopardized by hospitalization for treatment of diabetic or nondiabetic disorders or routine health care interventions, such as minor surgical procedures or dental prophylaxis. Thus, a major challenge for veterinarians caring for established diabetics in the hospital is to provide needed care while avoiding significant disruption of glucose control. This article provides useful strategies and techniques for in-hospital glucose management in established stable diabetics.
Canine Pituitary Dependent Hyperadrenocorticism Series – Part 3: Current & Investigative Options for Therapy
Canine pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH), also known as Cushing’s disease, is a common endocrine disorder in older dogs. This disorder is caused by a pituitary adenoma (PA) that secretes inappropriate amounts of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)…