Internal Medicine


Fluid Therapy in Critical Care

Intravenous fluid administration is probably the most frequently used therapy in veterinary hospitals. Aggressive IV fluid resuscitation in emergent patients and continuous IV fluid administration in hospitalized patients have long been considered fundamental in the management of critically ill animals. However, research into whether the type and volume of fluids infused can contribute to comorbidities and decrease the chances of a favorable outcome continues. This article reviews new trends in fluid therapy in human and veterinary critical care medicine.


Regenerative Medicine for Soft Tissue Injury & Osteoarthritis

Regenerative medicine is often used as an adjunct to surgical, medical, and/or rehabilitation therapy in a multimodal approach to treat a condition or injury. As with any other treatment modality, it is important to obtain a definitive diagnosis and tailor an appropriate treatment plan for the patient.


Glycemic Control of Hospitalized Diabetic Patients

Glycemic control in diabetic dogs and cats may be jeopardized by hospitalization for treatment of diabetic or nondiabetic disorders or routine health care interventions, such as minor surgical procedures or dental prophylaxis. Thus, a major challenge for veterinarians caring for established diabetics in the hospital is to provide needed care while avoiding significant disruption of glucose control. This article provides useful strategies and techniques for in-hospital glucose management in established stable diabetics.


The Practitioner’s Acid–Base Primer: Differential Diagnoses & Treatment

Lori S. Waddell, DVM, Diplomate ACVECC The first article of this 2-part series, Obtaining & Interpreting Blood Gases (May/June 2013), addressed techniques for obtaining blood gases and interpretation; this article further investigates metabolic and respiratory disturbances, including therapeutic measures for both. This article is the second in the 2-part series: The Practitioner’s Acid–Base Primer. The …


Acute Abdomen in Dogs & Cats: Step-by-Step Approach to Patient Care

Garret Pachtinger, VMD, Diplomate ACVECC Acute gastrointestinal distress and abdominal pain require prompt evaluation and immediate intervention. They also prompt the practitioner to ask: Does the patient require medical or surgical management? This article presents the important answers to that question. Acute gastrointestinal (GI) distress and abdominal pain require prompt evaluation and immediate intervention to … Protection Status