Evaluation and Management of the Hypernatremic Patient
Acute salt toxicity resulting from the ingestion of large amounts of sodium chloride is a potential cause of hypernatremia.
Hypernatremia reflects the loss of water in excess of sodium or the addition of sodium in excess of water. A patient with hypernatremia therefore must be unable or unwilling to consume adequate amounts of water or unable to retain adequate water.
This case involves a Welsh springer spaniel that was diagnosed with sporotrichosis, a rare fungal infection.
Sporotrichosis is an uncommon disease in dogs that can evade diagnosis and can mimic other conditions. Immunosuppression may affect progression of this disease, but the prognosis can be good with recognition and appropriate therapy.
Approaches to Opportunistic Fungal Infections in Small Animals
While treatment of opportunistic fungal infections is challenging, early recognition and aggressive treatment can enhance the potential for success.
Although the prognosis of fungal infections is guarded to poor, a multi-modal and aggressive approach can yield some positive results.
Essential to Every Cell: Cobalamin in Health and Disease
Clinical signs associated with hypocobalaminemia include gastrointestinal issues, immunodeficiency, metabolic derangements, and more.
Cobalamin, commonly known as vitamin B12, is a water-soluble vitamin used by every cell in the body, thus is required for maintenance of normal physiologic functions. Given cobalamin’s essential role in health, it follows that cobalamin-deficient states, or hypocobalaminemia, can contribute to disease pathophysiology.
Canine Immune-Mediated Polyarthritis: Meeting the Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges
Immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA) is an important condition to recognize in dogs. Treatment of IMPA is significantly different than treatment of many other conditions that may present with similar clinical signs, and protocols may vary between patients. Therefore, making an accurate diagnosis is critical. This article identifies some of the key considerations for establishing the diagnosis and making appropriate treatment plans for dogs with IMPA.
Fluid Therapy in Critical Care
Intravenous fluid administration is probably the most frequently used therapy in veterinary hospitals. Aggressive IV fluid resuscitation in emergent patients and continuous IV fluid administration in hospitalized patients have long been considered fundamental in the management of critically ill animals. However, research into whether the type and volume of fluids infused can contribute to comorbidities and decrease the chances of a favorable outcome continues. This article reviews new trends in fluid therapy in human and veterinary critical care medicine.
Fluid Therapy in Hospitalized Patients, Part 2: Electrolyte Abnormalities and Fluid Balance
Bridget M. Lyons, VMD Lori S. Waddell, DVM, DACVECC University of Pennsylvania HOLDING WATER Water loss may result from pure water loss, as seen with diabetes insipidus, elevated body temperature, primary hypodipsia, and water restriction. Alternatively, it may occur with loss of fluids that are hypotonic relative to plasma, such as with vomiting, diarrhea, third-space …
Fluid Therapy in Hospitalized Patients, Part 1: Patient Assessment and Fluid Choices
Bridget M. Lyons, VMD Lori S. Waddell, DVM, DACVECC University of Pennsylvania GO WITH THE FLOW Fluid therapy is a mainstay of care in the hospitalized small animal patient. Assessment of a patient’s fluid deficits and ongoing needs will help determine what variety of fluid and rate to use. Fluid therapy is an essential component …
Glycemic Control of Hospitalized Diabetic Patients
Glycemic control in diabetic dogs and cats may be jeopardized by hospitalization for treatment of diabetic or nondiabetic disorders or routine health care interventions, such as minor surgical procedures or dental prophylaxis. Thus, a major challenge for veterinarians caring for established diabetics in the hospital is to provide needed care while avoiding significant disruption of glucose control. This article provides useful strategies and techniques for in-hospital glucose management in established stable diabetics.