Internal MedicineCauses of hyperchloremia vary and include acid–base related, drug related, and renal failure.
Internal MedicinePatients with severe hypokalemia suffer from generalized muscle weakness; in cats, cervical ventroflexion may be noted.
Internal MedicineResuscitative and/or replacement fluids should be provided to any patient with hyperkalemia and a fluid deficit.
Internal MedicineHyponatremia is is defined as an excess of water in relation to serum sodium concentrations in the body. A thorough history is important in assessing hyponatremic patients as the details could impact the preferred treatment option.
Hypernatremia reflects the loss of water in excess of sodium or the addition of sodium in excess of water.