Oral Cyclosporine Use in Dogs
Cyclosporine is a potent immunosuppressive agent that has treatment applications in both veterinary and human medicine. Oral cyclosporine is currently being used to treat a spectrum of inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases in dogs, including but not limited to atopic dermatitis, autoimmune skin disorders, perianal fistula, inflammatory bowel disease, granulomatous meningoencephalitis, and immune-mediated blood disorders.
Oclacitinib: Treating Pruritus and Beyond
For years, glucocorticoids and cyclosporine have been used for the symptomatic management of atopic dermatitis, including the associated pruritus. In the past 5 years, however, oclacitinib (Apoquel; zoetisus.com), a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, has become another important drug in the management of allergic pruritus.
Grapiprant for Control of Osteoarthritis Pain in Dogs
For centuries, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used for pain control. However, their use has been associated with potentially life-threatening adverse drug events. Grapiprant is a novel drug for treatment of osteoarthritic pain in dogs. Approved in 2016, it is a non-cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibiting NSAID.
The Use of Capromorelin for the Clinical Problem of Inappetence
Inappetence is a common clinical sign that has an important influence on perceived quality of life and case management in dogs and cats. Capromorelin has the potential to positively affect the clinical management of inappetence and weight loss/cachexia in dogs.
Alfaxalone: An Old Drug in a New Formulation
Alfaxalone has been used to induce general anesthesia for many years, but only recently has a new formulation with preservatives become available in the United States. This formulation has a shelf life of 28 days after first use. It is approved for IV administration to induce and maintain general anesthesia in dogs and cats; however, it is also used via the IM route for induction and sedation (off label).
Mirtazapine: Addressing Appetite in Cats
A review of the studies of oral mirtazapine—which stimulates appetite—and current recommendations for cats, including normal cats, geriatric cats, and cats with kidney or liver disease.
The Therapeutic Power of Monoclonal Antibody Therapy
Biotherapeutics are still relatively new in veterinary medicine. This article reviews biologic therapy as it relates specifically to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and covers the only fully licensed and commercially available product, lokivetmab (Cytopoint).
Telmisartan for Treating Systemic Hypertension
A review of the mechanism of action of the angiotensin II receptor blocker telmisartan; plus, its use in veterinary medicine to date.
Pimobendan and Heart Disease
Pimobendan is a benzimidazole-pyridazinone derivative, labeled for use in dogs to manage congestive heart failure (CHF) resulting from dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) or degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD) in the United States. On the basis of its positive inotropic effects combined with arteriovenous dilation, it is classified as an inodilator.1 In this article, we provide relevant …