Equine Medicine , Ethics/Welfare , News

UC Davis PET Research to Improve Racehorse Safety and Welfare

UC Davis PET Research to Improve Racehorse Safety and Welfare
Equine PET requires the patient to be under general anesthesia since the limb needs to be still to capture the images. Photo Courtesy: Rob Warren, Communications and Marketing Officer at UC Davis Veterinary Hospital.
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  

A significant advance in veterinary research is coming to the racetrack in the form of a standing equine PET scanner. The machine will soon be available at Santa Anita Park, marking a major milestone in the battle against racetrack injuries.

In the wake of a difficult winter for Southern California horse racing, the entire racehorse community is looking for ways to improve safety for these amazing athletes. The approach is multifactorial and takes into consideration track conditions, medication use, training regimens and early detection of injuries. Research performed by Dr. Susan Stover, director of the J.D. Wheat Veterinary Orthopedic Research Laboratory at the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, has shown that catastrophic injuries in racehorses are associated with subtle, pre-existing bone changes, particularly in the fetlock joint. The challenge has been identifying these changes early enough to prevent serious injuries.

The UC Davis imaging group has been working on this challenge of early detection of injuries for several years. What started in 2013 as a purely academic discussion between PET engineer Dr. Ramsey Badawi and equine radiologist Dr. Mathieu Spriet has led to a real-world application of the most powerful system to detect bone injuries in racehorses. The new PET scanner will be used to identify patterns of stress remodeling in the fetlock and assess how they are affected by training and track conditions. The long-term goal is to use the technique as a screening tool to identify horses at risk of catastrophic breakdowns.

old pet scan

The initial standing PET prototype design enabled imaging of the hooves while the horse is under sedation, simplifying the process and facilitating the monitoring of changes over time. Photo Courtesy: Rob Warren, Communications and Marketing Officer at UC Davis Veterinary Hospital.

 

“We cannot overstate how significant an advancement this is in equine diagnostic imaging, and it is a natural fit here at Santa Anita,” said Dr. Rick Arthur, equine medical director at UC Davis who advises the California Horse Racing Board on equine safety. “This is one more example of how the horse racing industry and horses benefit from working closely with UC Davis.”

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) uses a small dose of radioactivity to detect changes in bone or soft tissue at the microscopic level. Using a ring of detectors, it acquires data in three dimensions, allowing for precise detection of subtle changes, which can be early signs of compromised structures. PET can also distinguish between active and inactive lesions, which can help pinpoint areas of concern.

The first equine PET scan was performed at UC Davis in 2015 using a scanner from Brain Biosciences, Inc. that was originally designed for human brain imaging. Horses were anesthetized, and their limbs placed in the scanner. Images were captured for up to six different areas on each horse. The results, along with support from the UC Davis Center for Equine Health and the Grayson Jockey Club Research Foundation, enabled UC Davis to initiate the first clinical equine PET program in August 2016. To date, more than 100 horses have been imaged at the UC Davis veterinary hospital for lameness evaluations.

“We are incredibly grateful to all of our donors at the UC Davis Center for Equine Health that enabled us to support research on the first equine PET unit,” said Dr. Carrie Finno, director of the Center for Equine Health. “We anticipate that this equipment will be used to prevent future injuries.”

This work demonstrated the value of PET for identifying early lesions in racehorses, but a major limitation existed: horses had to be anesthetized. Anesthesia is not an option for all patients. It requires recovery time that interrupts training, specialized equipment, and specially trained staff, as well as involves safety risks inherent in recovering horses from general anesthesia. These factors also make it difficult to perform multiple scans on a single horse in order to monitor changes over time.

With this in mind, Dr. Spriet worked with LONGMILE imaging—a division of Brain Biosciences, Inc.—to develop a scanner to image standing horses. In January 2019, the first PET scan on a standing horse was performed at UC Davis. Using an initial scanner prototype, the feet of research horses were imaged without anesthesia. This initial prototype consisted of a full ring of detectors, which would present safety issues for imaging higher parts of the limbs, such as the fetlocks. The engineers from LONGMILE designed the concept of the MILE-PET, a PET scanner consisting of a ring of detectors that open to allow quick release of the horse.

The Grayson Jockey Club Research Foundation and the Dolly Green Research Foundation showed great enthusiasm and support toward the development of the MILE-PET. Recently, the commitment of the Stronach Group to “a substantial investment in diagnostic equipment to aid in the early detection of pre-existing conditions” has made the MILE-PET scanner a reality. The new scanner will be validated this summer at UC Davis with support from the Center for Equine Health before it is installed at Santa Anita Park for the fall race meet.

“The MILE-PET is a project that has been long in the work and is now going to be deployed where it fits the best – at the racetrack at Santa Anita,” said Dr. Spriet. “It is very exciting that the product of our research, with the support of the industry, will now be able to help the fascinating world of horse racing.”

READ MORE

Read how the AVMA is reintroducing a bill to address rural veterinary shortages

Reab about Penn Vet’s new $2.7 million emergency room

DMCA.com Protection Status
[gravityform id="6" title="false" description="false"]
<div class='gf_browser_unknown gform_wrapper' id='gform_wrapper_6' style='display:none'><form method='post' enctype='multipart/form-data' id='gform_6' action='/uc-davis-pet-research-to-improve-racehorse-safety-and-welfare/'> <div class='gform_body'><ul id='gform_fields_6' class='gform_fields top_label form_sublabel_below description_below'><li id='field_6_1' class='gfield gfield_contains_required field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><label class='gfield_label gfield_label_before_complex' >Name<span class='gfield_required'>*</span></label><div class='ginput_complex ginput_container no_prefix has_first_name no_middle_name has_last_name no_suffix gf_name_has_2 ginput_container_name' id='input_6_1'> <span id='input_6_1_3_container' class='name_first' > <input type='text' name='input_1.3' id='input_6_1_3' value='' aria-label='First name' aria-required="true" aria-invalid="false" /> <label for='input_6_1_3' >First</label> </span> <span id='input_6_1_6_container' class='name_last' > <input type='text' name='input_1.6' id='input_6_1_6' value='' aria-label='Last name' aria-required="true" aria-invalid="false" /> <label for='input_6_1_6' >Last</label> </span> </div></li><li id='field_6_2' class='gfield gfield_contains_required field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><label class='gfield_label' for='input_6_2' >Email<span class='gfield_required'>*</span></label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_email'> <input name='input_2' id='input_6_2' type='text' value='' class='medium' aria-required="true" aria-invalid="false" /> </div></li><li id='field_6_7' class='gfield gfield_contains_required field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><label class='gfield_label' for='input_6_7' >Profession / Role<span class='gfield_required'>*</span></label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_select'><select name='input_7' id='input_6_7' class='medium gfield_select' aria-required="true" aria-invalid="false"><option value='Veterinarian' >Veterinarian</option><option value='Veterinary Nurse / Technician' >Veterinary Nurse / Technician</option><option value='Practice Manager / Veterinary Assistant / Support Staff' >Practice Manager / Veterinary Assistant / Support Staff</option><option value='Student (Veterinarian or Veterinary Nurse)' >Student (Veterinarian or Veterinary Nurse)</option><option value='Other' >Other</option></select></div></li><li id='field_6_20' class='gfield gfield_html gfield_html_formatted gfield_no_follows_desc field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><br></li><li id='field_6_15' class='gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_above gfield_visibility_visible' ><label class='gfield_label' >Inbox Preferences</label><div class='gfield_description' id='gfield_description_6_15'>Customize your inbox by selecting the areas you are most interested in. </div><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_checkbox'><ul class='gfield_checkbox' id='input_6_15'><li class='gchoice_6_15_1'> <input name='input_15.1' type='checkbox' value='NAVC Better Care Weekly&lt;br&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;font-size: 12px;color: #808080&quot;&gt;A weekly roundup of the new and noteworthy innovations and educational opportunities in the veterinary industry.&lt;/div&gt;' checked='checked' id='choice_6_15_1' /> <label for='choice_6_15_1' id='label_6_15_1'>NAVC Better Care Weekly<br><div style="font-size: 12px; color: #808080;">A weekly roundup of the new and noteworthy innovations and educational opportunities in the veterinary industry.</div></label> </li><li class='gchoice_6_15_2'> <input name='input_15.2' type='checkbox' value='Today&#039;s Veterinary Business eNewsletter&lt;br&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;font-size: 12px;color: #808080&quot;&gt;Covers topics relating to practice management, financial metrics, marketing, retailing and merchandising, and industry news.&lt;/div&gt;' id='choice_6_15_2' /> <label for='choice_6_15_2' id='label_6_15_2'>Today's Veterinary Business eNewsletter<br><div style="font-size: 12px; color: #808080;">Covers topics relating to practice management, financial metrics, marketing, retailing and merchandising, and industry news.</div></label> </li><li class='gchoice_6_15_3'> <input name='input_15.3' type='checkbox' value='Today&#039;s Veterinary Nurse eNewsletter&lt;br&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;font-size: 12px;color: #808080&quot;&gt;Provides practical, peer-reviewed companion animal educational CE for veterinary nurses, technicians and assistants.&lt;/div&gt;' id='choice_6_15_3' /> <label for='choice_6_15_3' id='label_6_15_3'>Today's Veterinary Nurse eNewsletter<br><div style="font-size: 12px; color: #808080;">Provides practical, peer-reviewed companion animal educational CE for veterinary nurses, technicians and assistants.</div></label> </li><li class='gchoice_6_15_4'> <input name='input_15.4' type='checkbox' value='Today&#039;s Veterinary Practice eNewsletter&lt;br&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;font-size: 12px;color: #808080&quot;&gt;Provides practical, peer-reviewed articles focused on the latest diagnostic and treatment techniques to enhance your knowledge and confidence.&lt;/div&gt;' id='choice_6_15_4' /> <label for='choice_6_15_4' id='label_6_15_4'>Today's Veterinary Practice eNewsletter<br><div style="font-size: 12px; color: #808080;">Provides practical, peer-reviewed articles focused on the latest diagnostic and treatment techniques to enhance your knowledge and confidence.</div></label> </li><li class='gchoice_6_15_5'> <input name='input_15.5' type='checkbox' value='VetFolio eNewsletter&lt;br&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;font-size: 12px;color: #808080&quot;&gt;Discover online CE resources offered in a variety of formats including videos, podcasts, webinars and more.&lt;/div&gt;' id='choice_6_15_5' /> <label for='choice_6_15_5' id='label_6_15_5'>VetFolio eNewsletter<br><div style="font-size: 12px; color: #808080;">Discover online CE resources offered in a variety of formats including videos, podcasts, webinars and more.</div></label> </li><li class='gchoice_6_15_6'> <input name='input_15.6' type='checkbox' value='Partner Emails&lt;br&gt;&lt;div style=&quot;font-size: 12px;color: #808080&quot;&gt;Exclusive deals and information from our partners.&lt;/div&gt;' id='choice_6_15_6' /> <label for='choice_6_15_6' id='label_6_15_6'>Partner Emails<br><div style="font-size: 12px; color: #808080;">Exclusive deals and information from our partners.</div></label> </li></ul></div></li><li id='field_6_19' class='gfield gfield_html gfield_html_formatted field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><br></li><li id='field_6_22' class='gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><label class='gfield_label' >Do you want to be added to our postal mailing list?</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_checkbox'><ul class='gfield_checkbox' id='input_6_22'><li class='gchoice_6_22_1'> <input name='input_22.1' type='checkbox' value='Yes, I love mail!' id='choice_6_22_1' /> <label for='choice_6_22_1' id='label_6_22_1'>Yes, I love mail!</label> </li><li class='gchoice_6_22_2'> <input name='input_22.2' type='checkbox' value='No thank you.' id='choice_6_22_2' /> <label for='choice_6_22_2' id='label_6_22_2'>No thank you.</label> </li></ul></div></li><li id='field_6_10' class='gfield gfield_contains_required field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><label class='gfield_label gfield_label_before_complex' >Please provide your mailing address below.<span class='gfield_required'>*</span></label> <div class='ginput_complex ginput_container has_street has_street2 has_city has_state has_zip has_country ginput_container_address' id='input_6_10' > <span class='ginput_full address_line_1' id='input_6_10_1_container' > <input type='text' name='input_10.1' id='input_6_10_1' value='' aria-required="true"/> <label for='input_6_10_1' id='input_6_10_1_label' >Street Address</label> </span><span class='ginput_full address_line_2' id='input_6_10_2_container' > <input type='text' name='input_10.2' id='input_6_10_2' value='' /> <label for='input_6_10_2' id='input_6_10_2_label' >Address Line 2</label> </span><span class='ginput_left address_city' id='input_6_10_3_container' > <input type='text' name='input_10.3' id='input_6_10_3' value='' aria-required="true"/> <label for='input_6_10_3' id='input_6_10_3_label' >City</label> </span><span class='ginput_right address_state' id='input_6_10_4_container' > <input type='text' name='input_10.4' id='input_6_10_4' value='' aria-required="true"/> <label for='input_6_10_4' id='input_6_10_4_label' >State / Province / Region</label> </span><span class='ginput_left address_zip' id='input_6_10_5_container' > <input type='text' name='input_10.5' id='input_6_10_5' value='' aria-required="true"/> <label for='input_6_10_5' id='input_6_10_5_label' >ZIP / Postal Code</label> </span><span class='ginput_right address_country' id='input_6_10_6_container' > <select name='input_10.6' id='input_6_10_6' aria-required="true"><option value='' selected='selected'></option><option value='Afghanistan' >Afghanistan</option><option value='Åland Islands' >Åland Islands</option><option value='Albania' >Albania</option><option value='Algeria' >Algeria</option><option value='American Samoa' >American Samoa</option><option value='Andorra' >Andorra</option><option value='Angola' >Angola</option><option value='Anguilla' >Anguilla</option><option value='Antarctica' >Antarctica</option><option value='Antigua and Barbuda' >Antigua and Barbuda</option><option value='Argentina' >Argentina</option><option value='Armenia' >Armenia</option><option value='Aruba' >Aruba</option><option value='Australia' >Australia</option><option value='Austria' >Austria</option><option value='Azerbaijan' >Azerbaijan</option><option value='Bahamas' >Bahamas</option><option value='Bahrain' >Bahrain</option><option value='Bangladesh' >Bangladesh</option><option value='Barbados' >Barbados</option><option value='Belarus' >Belarus</option><option value='Belgium' >Belgium</option><option value='Belize' >Belize</option><option value='Benin' >Benin</option><option value='Bermuda' >Bermuda</option><option value='Bhutan' >Bhutan</option><option value='Bolivia' >Bolivia</option><option value='Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba' >Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba</option><option value='Bosnia and Herzegovina' >Bosnia and Herzegovina</option><option value='Botswana' >Botswana</option><option value='Bouvet Island' >Bouvet Island</option><option value='Brazil' >Brazil</option><option value='British Indian Ocean Territory' >British Indian Ocean Territory</option><option value='Brunei Darussalam' >Brunei Darussalam</option><option value='Bulgaria' >Bulgaria</option><option value='Burkina Faso' >Burkina Faso</option><option value='Burundi' >Burundi</option><option value='Cambodia' >Cambodia</option><option value='Cameroon' >Cameroon</option><option value='Canada' >Canada</option><option value='Cape Verde' >Cape Verde</option><option value='Cayman Islands' >Cayman Islands</option><option value='Central African Republic' >Central African Republic</option><option value='Chad' >Chad</option><option value='Chile' >Chile</option><option value='China' >China</option><option value='Christmas Island' >Christmas Island</option><option value='Cocos Islands' >Cocos Islands</option><option value='Colombia' >Colombia</option><option value='Comoros' >Comoros</option><option value='Congo, Democratic Republic of the' >Congo, Democratic Republic of the</option><option value='Congo, Republic of the' >Congo, Republic of the</option><option value='Cook Islands' >Cook Islands</option><option value='Costa Rica' >Costa Rica</option><option value='Côte d&#039;Ivoire' >Côte d&#039;Ivoire</option><option value='Croatia' >Croatia</option><option value='Cuba' >Cuba</option><option value='Curaçao' >Curaçao</option><option value='Cyprus' >Cyprus</option><option value='Czech Republic' >Czech Republic</option><option value='Denmark' >Denmark</option><option value='Djibouti' >Djibouti</option><option value='Dominica' >Dominica</option><option value='Dominican Republic' >Dominican Republic</option><option value='Ecuador' >Ecuador</option><option value='Egypt' >Egypt</option><option value='El Salvador' >El Salvador</option><option value='Equatorial Guinea' >Equatorial Guinea</option><option value='Eritrea' >Eritrea</option><option value='Estonia' >Estonia</option><option value='Eswatini (Swaziland)' >Eswatini (Swaziland)</option><option value='Ethiopia' >Ethiopia</option><option value='Falkland Islands' >Falkland Islands</option><option value='Faroe Islands' >Faroe Islands</option><option value='Fiji' >Fiji</option><option value='Finland' >Finland</option><option value='France' >France</option><option value='French Guiana' >French Guiana</option><option value='French Polynesia' >French Polynesia</option><option value='French Southern Territories' >French Southern Territories</option><option value='Gabon' >Gabon</option><option value='Gambia' >Gambia</option><option value='Georgia' >Georgia</option><option value='Germany' >Germany</option><option value='Ghana' >Ghana</option><option value='Gibraltar' >Gibraltar</option><option value='Greece' >Greece</option><option value='Greenland' >Greenland</option><option value='Grenada' >Grenada</option><option value='Guadeloupe' >Guadeloupe</option><option value='Guam' >Guam</option><option value='Guatemala' >Guatemala</option><option value='Guernsey' >Guernsey</option><option value='Guinea' >Guinea</option><option value='Guinea-Bissau' >Guinea-Bissau</option><option value='Guyana' >Guyana</option><option value='Haiti' >Haiti</option><option value='Heard and McDonald Islands' >Heard and McDonald Islands</option><option value='Holy See' >Holy See</option><option value='Honduras' >Honduras</option><option value='Hong Kong' >Hong Kong</option><option value='Hungary' >Hungary</option><option value='Iceland' >Iceland</option><option value='India' >India</option><option value='Indonesia' >Indonesia</option><option value='Iran' >Iran</option><option value='Iraq' >Iraq</option><option value='Ireland' >Ireland</option><option value='Isle of Man' >Isle of Man</option><option value='Israel' >Israel</option><option value='Italy' >Italy</option><option value='Jamaica' >Jamaica</option><option value='Japan' >Japan</option><option value='Jersey' >Jersey</option><option value='Jordan' >Jordan</option><option value='Kazakhstan' >Kazakhstan</option><option value='Kenya' >Kenya</option><option value='Kiribati' >Kiribati</option><option value='Kuwait' >Kuwait</option><option value='Kyrgyzstan' >Kyrgyzstan</option><option value='Lao People&#039;s Democratic Republic' >Lao People&#039;s Democratic Republic</option><option value='Latvia' >Latvia</option><option value='Lebanon' >Lebanon</option><option value='Lesotho' >Lesotho</option><option value='Liberia' >Liberia</option><option value='Libya' >Libya</option><option value='Liechtenstein' >Liechtenstein</option><option value='Lithuania' >Lithuania</option><option value='Luxembourg' >Luxembourg</option><option value='Macau' >Macau</option><option value='Macedonia' >Macedonia</option><option value='Madagascar' >Madagascar</option><option value='Malawi' >Malawi</option><option value='Malaysia' >Malaysia</option><option value='Maldives' >Maldives</option><option value='Mali' >Mali</option><option value='Malta' >Malta</option><option value='Marshall Islands' >Marshall Islands</option><option value='Martinique' >Martinique</option><option value='Mauritania' >Mauritania</option><option value='Mauritius' >Mauritius</option><option value='Mayotte' >Mayotte</option><option value='Mexico' >Mexico</option><option value='Micronesia' >Micronesia</option><option value='Moldova' >Moldova</option><option value='Monaco' >Monaco</option><option value='Mongolia' >Mongolia</option><option value='Montenegro' >Montenegro</option><option value='Montserrat' >Montserrat</option><option value='Morocco' >Morocco</option><option value='Mozambique' >Mozambique</option><option value='Myanmar' >Myanmar</option><option value='Namibia' >Namibia</option><option value='Nauru' >Nauru</option><option value='Nepal' >Nepal</option><option value='Netherlands' >Netherlands</option><option value='New Caledonia' >New Caledonia</option><option value='New Zealand' >New Zealand</option><option value='Nicaragua' >Nicaragua</option><option value='Niger' >Niger</option><option value='Nigeria' >Nigeria</option><option value='Niue' >Niue</option><option value='Norfolk Island' >Norfolk Island</option><option value='North Korea' >North Korea</option><option value='Northern Mariana Islands' >Northern Mariana Islands</option><option value='Norway' >Norway</option><option value='Oman' >Oman</option><option value='Pakistan' >Pakistan</option><option value='Palau' >Palau</option><option value='Palestine, State of' >Palestine, State of</option><option value='Panama' >Panama</option><option value='Papua New Guinea' >Papua New Guinea</option><option value='Paraguay' >Paraguay</option><option value='Peru' >Peru</option><option value='Philippines' >Philippines</option><option value='Pitcairn' >Pitcairn</option><option value='Poland' >Poland</option><option value='Portugal' >Portugal</option><option value='Puerto Rico' >Puerto Rico</option><option value='Qatar' >Qatar</option><option value='Réunion' >Réunion</option><option value='Romania' >Romania</option><option value='Russia' >Russia</option><option value='Rwanda' >Rwanda</option><option value='Saint Barthélemy' >Saint Barthélemy</option><option value='Saint Helena' >Saint Helena</option><option value='Saint Kitts and Nevis' >Saint Kitts and Nevis</option><option value='Saint Lucia' >Saint Lucia</option><option value='Saint Martin' >Saint Martin</option><option value='Saint Pierre and Miquelon' >Saint Pierre and Miquelon</option><option value='Saint Vincent and the Grenadines' >Saint Vincent and the Grenadines</option><option value='Samoa' >Samoa</option><option value='San Marino' >San Marino</option><option value='Sao Tome and Principe' >Sao Tome and Principe</option><option value='Saudi Arabia' >Saudi Arabia</option><option value='Senegal' >Senegal</option><option value='Serbia' >Serbia</option><option value='Seychelles' >Seychelles</option><option value='Sierra Leone' >Sierra Leone</option><option value='Singapore' >Singapore</option><option value='Sint Maarten' >Sint Maarten</option><option value='Slovakia' >Slovakia</option><option value='Slovenia' >Slovenia</option><option value='Solomon Islands' >Solomon Islands</option><option value='Somalia' >Somalia</option><option value='South Africa' >South Africa</option><option value='South Georgia' >South Georgia</option><option value='South Korea' >South Korea</option><option value='South Sudan' >South Sudan</option><option value='Spain' >Spain</option><option value='Sri Lanka' >Sri Lanka</option><option value='Sudan' >Sudan</option><option value='Suriname' >Suriname</option><option value='Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands' >Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands</option><option value='Sweden' >Sweden</option><option value='Switzerland' >Switzerland</option><option value='Syria' >Syria</option><option value='Taiwan' >Taiwan</option><option value='Tajikistan' >Tajikistan</option><option value='Tanzania' >Tanzania</option><option value='Thailand' >Thailand</option><option value='Timor-Leste' >Timor-Leste</option><option value='Togo' >Togo</option><option value='Tokelau' >Tokelau</option><option value='Tonga' >Tonga</option><option value='Trinidad and Tobago' >Trinidad and Tobago</option><option value='Tunisia' >Tunisia</option><option value='Turkey' >Turkey</option><option value='Turkmenistan' >Turkmenistan</option><option value='Turks and Caicos Islands' >Turks and Caicos Islands</option><option value='Tuvalu' >Tuvalu</option><option value='Uganda' >Uganda</option><option value='Ukraine' >Ukraine</option><option value='United Arab Emirates' >United Arab Emirates</option><option value='United Kingdom' >United Kingdom</option><option value='United States' >United States</option><option value='Uruguay' >Uruguay</option><option value='US Minor Outlying Islands' >US Minor Outlying Islands</option><option value='Uzbekistan' >Uzbekistan</option><option value='Vanuatu' >Vanuatu</option><option value='Venezuela' >Venezuela</option><option value='Vietnam' >Vietnam</option><option value='Virgin Islands, British' >Virgin Islands, British</option><option value='Virgin Islands, U.S.' >Virgin Islands, U.S.</option><option value='Wallis and Futuna' >Wallis and Futuna</option><option value='Western Sahara' >Western Sahara</option><option value='Yemen' >Yemen</option><option value='Zambia' >Zambia</option><option value='Zimbabwe' >Zimbabwe</option></select> <label for='input_6_10_6' id='input_6_10_6_label' >Country</label> </span> <div class='gf_clear gf_clear_complex'></div> </div></li> </ul></div> <div class='gform_footer top_label'> <input type='submit' id='gform_submit_button_6' class='gform_button button' value='Sign Up' onclick='if(window["gf_submitting_6"]){return false;} window["gf_submitting_6"]=true; ' onkeypress='if( event.keyCode == 13 ){ if(window["gf_submitting_6"]){return false;} window["gf_submitting_6"]=true; jQuery("#gform_6").trigger("submit",[true]); }' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='is_submit_6' value='1' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_submit' value='6' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_unique_id' value='' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='state_6' value='WyJbXSIsIjNkNTNhNjhlOThlOGY4N2JlZWZiNTRmZDhlZDQ5OWI3Il0=' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_target_page_number_6' id='gform_target_page_number_6' value='0' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_source_page_number_6' id='gform_source_page_number_6' value='1' /> <input type='hidden' name='gform_field_values' value='' /> </div> </form> </div><script type='text/javascript'> jQuery(document).bind('gform_post_render', function(event, formId, currentPage){if(formId == 6) {gf_global["number_formats"][6] = {"1":{"price":false,"value":false},"2":{"price":false,"value":false},"7":{"price":false,"value":false},"20":{"price":false,"value":false},"15":{"price":false,"value":false},"19":{"price":false,"value":false},"22":{"price":false,"value":false},"10":{"price":false,"value":false}};if(window['jQuery']){if(!window['gf_form_conditional_logic'])window['gf_form_conditional_logic'] = new Array();window['gf_form_conditional_logic'][6] = { logic: { 10: {"field":{"actionType":"show","logicType":"any","rules":[{"fieldId":"22","operator":"is","value":"Yes, I love mail!"}]},"nextButton":null,"section":null} }, dependents: { 10: [10] }, animation: 1, defaults: {"1":{"1.2":"","1.3":"","1.4":"","1.6":"","1.8":""},"15":["choice_6_15_1"],"10":{"10.1":"","10.2":"","10.3":"","10.4":"","10.5":"","10.6":""}}, fields: {"1":[],"2":[],"7":[],"20":[],"15":[],"19":[],"22":[10],"10":[]} }; if(!window['gf_number_format'])window['gf_number_format'] = 'decimal_dot';jQuery(document).ready(function(){gf_apply_rules(6, [10], true);jQuery('#gform_wrapper_6').show();jQuery(document).trigger('gform_post_conditional_logic', [6, null, true]);} );} gformInitChosenFields('#input_6_7','No results matched');} } );jQuery(document).bind('gform_post_conditional_logic', function(event, formId, fields, isInit){gformInitChosenFields('#input_6_7','No results matched');} );</script><script type='text/javascript'> jQuery(document).ready(function(){jQuery(document).trigger('gform_post_render', [6, 1]) } ); </script>
MENU