About the Author
Dr. Heinz obtained his DVM from Purdue University. He completed an internship at LSU and a residency in emergency and critical care at Texas A&M University. After a year in private referral practice, Dr. Heinz joined the faculty at Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences. His clinical interests include transfusion medicine, sepsis, acute kidney injury, and renal replacement therapies.
Written By This Author
Internal MedicineCauses of hyperchloremia vary and include acid–base related, drug related, and renal failure.
Internal MedicinePatients with severe hypokalemia suffer from generalized muscle weakness; in cats, cervical ventroflexion may be noted.
Internal MedicineResuscitative and/or replacement fluids should be provided to any patient with hyperkalemia and a fluid deficit.
Internal MedicineHyponatremia is is defined as an excess of water in relation to serum sodium concentrations in the body. A thorough history is important in assessing hyponatremic patients as the details could impact the preferred treatment option.
Hypernatremia reflects the loss of water in excess of sodium or the addition of sodium in excess of water.