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Diagnosis of Canine Heartworm Infection

Dirofilaria immitis, the causative agent of canine heartworm disease, induces significant cardiopulmonary pathology in dogs in the United States and worldwide.

    Margaret C. Barr, DVM, PhD; Elizabeth P. Boynton, DVM; Peggy L. Schmidt, DVM, MS, Diplomate ACVPM; Frank Bossong, DVM; and Gary R. Johnston, DVM, MS, Diplomate ACVR Although highly effective methods are available to prevent infection in domestic dogs, D immitis has continued to spread throughout the U.S. Recent estimates of prevalence in dogs presented for veterinary …

Welfare and Ethics in Veterinary Shelter Medicine

Animal welfare is complex, encompassing practical aspects of housing, nutrition, and care, as well as ethical constructs of right and wrong.

Sherry Loveless, Animal Behavior and Conservation Program of Hunter College, City University of New York and the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies in Arlington, Virginia Animal behavior and welfare scientists, veterinarians, and researchers from disciplines, such as physiology, psychology, and ethics have made ardent strides in understanding and improving the lives of animals in zoos, …

Ketamine: To Use or Not to Use for Pain Management

Ketamine is a useful adjunct to many surgical procedures as one of the most potent drugs available for NMDA-blockade.

  Ketamine has been in long and routine use as a dissociative anesthetic. More recently, new pharmacologic features of ketamine have been discovered that provide novel pain modification. Editor’s Note: This article was originally published in July 2011. Please use this content for reference or educational purposes, but note that it is not being actively …

Bonded Sealant Application for Crown Fractures

Bonded sealant application has many positives for patients and clinics.

    For uncomplicated crown fractures with no radiographic evidence of disease, bonded sealant application can: Resolve sensitivity Block infection Improve aesthetics Smooth the tooth to decrease plaque accumulation, delaying periodontal disease. This is a simple procedure that every veterinary hospital should offer. Clinics with dental radiology and a high-speed drill system can equip themselves …

Ten Tips to Improve Your Ophthalmology Skills

Ophthalmology is a discipline of clinical recognition.

    Kenneth Abrams, DVM, Diplomate ACVO Ophthalmology is a discipline of clinical recognition. We do not do many blood tests, radiographs, higher imaging, or urinalyses to determine a diagnosis; rather, through a systematic clinical examination we can usually determine the patient’s disease and subsequent treatment. Here are 10 tips to improve your ophthalmic examination …

Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography for Characterization of Liver Nodules

Benign and malignant liver lesions can be identified by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.

  Cintia R. Oliveira, DVM, MS; Nathalie Rademacher, DrMedVet, Diplomate ECVDI & ACVR; and Lorrie Gaschen, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ECVDI Detection and characterization of liver tumors represents a diagnostic imaging challenge in both human and veterinary medicine. Routine gray-scale B-mode ultrasonography is sensitive for detecting focal disease in the liver but is nonspecific. It is …

Advances in Stem Cell Therapy: Application to Veterinary Medicine

  Donna Alderman, DO, and Robert W. Alexander, MD, DMD, FICS Musculoskeletal disorders and open wounds are common in veterinary medicine. Osteoarthritis afflicts 10 to 12 million dogs in the United States and is the most common cause of chronic pain in dogs.1 Tendon and ligament injuries are common in performance horses and potentially more …

Diagnosis and Treatment of Crown Fractures

Tooth fractures are defined as complicated or uncomplicated; both types require therapy, but treatment differs.

    Tooth fractures are defined as complicated or uncomplicated:1  Uncomplicated crown fractures have direct dentin but no pulp exposure  Complicated crown fractures have direct pulp (nerve) exposure. Both types require therapy, but treatment differs depending on the physical and radiographic appearance. The most commonly affected teeth are the canines and carnassials (maxillary fourth premolars …

Unique Therapies for Difficult Wounds

Many “old-school” remedies are re-emerging and have shown to be beneficial in wound treatment.

Jennifer L. Wardlaw, DVM, MS, Diplomate ACVS and Kristen O’Connell Traumatic wounds are frequently encountered by the small animal practitioner The inciting cause and severity of the wound dictate the duration of treatment, required materials/equipment, and labor intensity. Despite the availability of cutting-edge antibiotics, age and underlying disease or concurrent illness may contraindicate administration. Many “old-school” …